4 releases (2 breaking)

0.3.0 May 8, 2024
0.2.1 Mar 25, 2024
0.2.0 Mar 25, 2024
0.1.0 Oct 7, 2023

#243 in Database interfaces

GPL-3.0 license

72KB
717 lines

njord

Njord

build crates.io njord: rustc 1.77.1+ njord_derive: rustc 1.77+ discussions

A lightweight and extensible ORM library for Rust.

Table of Contents

Supported Databases

Database Support Status
SQLite Currently supported.
PostgreSQL Not supported, help us implement it?
MySQL Not supported, help us implement it?
MariaDB Not supported, help us implement it?
Oracle Not supported, help us implement it?
MSSQL Not supported, help us implement it?

Getting Started

Initializing a new project

The first thing we need to do is generate our project.

cargo new --bin njord_demo

Now, let’s add Njord to our dependencies. We’re also going to use a tool called .env to manage our environment variables for us. We’ll add it to our dependencies as well.

[dependencies]

# The core APIs, including the Table trait. 
# using #[derive(Table)] to make njord work with structs
# and enums defined in your crate.
njord = { version = "<version>", features = ["sqlite"] }
njord_derive = { version = "<version>" }

Add a schema file

Now we are going to define our schema file that we will create under src/schema.rs. We will store basically our structs that will map against the database.

#[derive(Table)]
#[table_name = "users"]
pub struct User {
    id: usize,
    username: String,
    email: String,
    address: String,
}

#[derive(Table)]
#[table_name = "categories"]
pub struct Category {
    id: usize,
    name: String,
}

#[derive(Table)]
#[table_name = "products"]
pub struct Product {
    id: usize,
    name: String,
    description: String,
    price: f64,
    stock_quantity: usize,
    category: Category,     // one-to-one relationship
    discount: Option<f64>,  // allow for null 
}

#[derive(Table)]
#[table_name = "orders"]
pub struct Order {
    id: usize,
    user: User,             // one-to-one relationship
    products: Vec<Product>, // one-to-many relationship - populates from based on junction table (gets from macro attribute "table_name" and combines them for example, orders_products)
    total_cost: f64,
}

Now that we have that in place, we need to create the SQL for setting this up in the database and execute it.

-- users table
CREATE TABLE users (
    id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
    username TEXT NOT NULL,
    email TEXT NOT NULL,
    address TEXT NOT NULL
);

-- products table
CREATE TABLE products (
    id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
    name TEXT NOT NULL,
    description TEXT NOT NULL,
    price REAL NOT NULL,
    stock_quantity INTEGER NOT NULL,
    category INTEGER REFERENCES categories(id),
    discount: REAL NULL
);

-- orders table
CREATE TABLE orders (
    id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
    user_id INTEGER REFERENCES users(id),
    total_cost REAL NOT NULL
);

-- order_products table
CREATE TABLE order_products (
    order_id INTEGER REFERENCES orders(id),
    product_id INTEGER REFERENCES products(id),
    PRIMARY KEY (order_id, product_id)
);

Usage

So how can we establish a connection and actually select or insert data to our database? Let's go through it. Note that these examples might be outdated, so dont treat it as a source of truth.

SQlite

Establish a connection

To establish a connection we first need to call the sqlite::open() function and use it with a match statement.

let db_name = "njord.db";
let db_path = Path::new(&db_name);

match sqlite::open(db_path) {
    Ok(c) => {
        println!("Database opened successfully!");
        
        // Additional logic when we are connected.
        // We need to open a connection and pass it 
        // to the corresponding sqlite function.
    }
    Err(err) => eprintln!("Error opening the database: {}", err),
}

Insert data

let user = User {
    username: String::from("john_doe"),
    email: String::from("john@example.com"),
    address: String::from("123 Main St"),
};

let result = sqlite::insert(c, vec![user]);
assert!(result.is_ok());

Generated SQL

INSERT INTO users (
    username,
    email,
    address
) VALUES (
    'john_doe',
    'john@example.com',
    '123 Main St'
)

Update data

let columns = vec!["username".to_string(), "address".to_string()];
let where_condition = Condition::Eq("username".to_string(), "john_doe".to_string());

let user = User {
    username: String::from("john_doe_2"),
    email: String::from("john@example.com"),
    address: String::from("1234 Main St"),
};

let mut order = HashMap::new();
order.insert(vec!["id".to_string()], "DESC".to_string());
        
let result = sqlite::update(c, user)
    .set(columns)
    .where_clause(where_condition)
    .order_by(order)
    .limit(4)
    .offset(0)
    .build();

assert!(result.is_ok());

Generated SQL

UPDATE users
SET
    username
WHERE
    username = 'john_doe'
ORDER BY
    id DESC
LIMIT 4
OFFSET 0

Delete data

let where_condition = Condition::Eq("username".to_string(), "john_doe".to_string());

let mut order = HashMap::new();
order.insert(vec!["id".to_string()], "DESC".to_string());

let result = sqlite::delete(c)
    .from(User::default())
    .where_clause(where_condition)
    .order_by(order)
    .limit(20)
    .offset(0)
    .build();

assert!(result.is_ok());

Generated SQL

DELETE FROM users
WHERE
    username = 'john_doe'
ORDER BY
    id DESC
LIMIT 20
OFFSET 0

Select data

let columns = vec!["id".to_string(), "username".to_string(), "email".to_string(), "address".to_string()];
let where_condition = Condition::Eq("username".to_string(), "john_doe".to_string());
let group_by = vec!["username".to_string(), "address".to_string()];

let mut order_by = HashMap::new();
order_by.insert(vec!["id".to_string()], "ASC".to_string());

let having_condition = Condition::Gt("id".to_string(), "1".to_string());

// Build the query
// We need to pass the struct User with the Default trait in .from()
let result: Result<Vec<User>> = sqlite::select(c, columns)
    .from(User::default())
    .where_clause(where_condition)
    .order_by(order_by)
    .group_by(group_by)
    .having(having_condition)
    .build();

match result {
    Ok(result) => {
        assert_eq!(result.len(), 1);
    }
    Err(error) => panic!("Failed to SELECT: {:?}", error),
};

Generated SQL

SELECT
    id,
    username,
    email,
    address
FROM
    users
WHERE
    username = 'mjovanc'
GROUP BY
    username,
    email
HAVING
    id > 1
ORDER BY
    email DESC

Getting Help

Are you having trouble with Njord? We want to help!

  • Read through the documentation on our docs.

  • If you are upgrading, read the release notes for upgrade instructions and "new and noteworthy" features.

  • Ask a question we monitor stackoverflow.com for questions tagged with Njord.

  • Report bugs with Njord at https://github.com/mjovanc/njord/issues.

Reporting Issues

Njord uses GitHub’s integrated issue tracking system to record bugs and feature requests. If you want to raise an issue, please follow the recommendations below:

  • Before you log a bug, please search the issue tracker to see if someone has already reported the problem.

  • If the issue doesn’t already exist, create a new issue.

  • Please provide as much information as possible with the issue report. We like to know the Njord version, operating system, and Rust version version you’re using.

  • If you need to paste code or include a stack trace, use Markdown. ``` escapes before and after your text.

  • If possible, try to create a test case or project that replicates the problem and attach it to the issue.

Contributing

Before contributing, please read the contribution guide for useful information how to get started with Njord as well as what should be included when submitting a contribution to the project.

Code of Conduct

Anyone who interacts with Njord in any space, including but not limited to this GitHub repository, must follow our code of conduct.

Contributors

The following contributors have either helped to start this project, have contributed code, are actively maintaining it (including documentation), or in other ways being awesome contributors to this project. We'd like to take a moment to recognize them.

mjovanc appelskrutt34

License

The BSD 3-Clause License.

Dependencies

~23MB
~444K SLoC