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#7 in Hardware support

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Used in 8 crates (6 directly)


6.5K SLoC


crates.io docs.rs Cargo tests Chat

A native Microsoft SQL Server (TDS) client for Rust.


  • A perfect implementation of the TDS protocol.
  • Asynchronous network IO.
  • Independent of the protocol.
  • Support for latest versions of Linux, Windows and macOS.


  • Connection pooling (use bb8, mobc, deadpool or any of the other asynchronous connection pools)
  • Query building
  • Object-relational mapping

Supported SQL Server versions

Version Support level Notes
2019 Tested on CI
2017 Tested on CI
2016 Should work
2014 Should work
2012 Should work
2008 Should work
2005 Should work With feature flag tds73 disabled.

Feature flags

Flag Description Default
tds73 Support for new date and time types in TDS version 7.3. Disable if using version 7.2. enabled
chrono Read and write date and time values using chrono's types. disabled
rust_decimal Read and write numeric/decimal values using rust_decimal's Decimal. disabled
bigdecimal Read and write numeric/decimal values using bigdecimal's BigDecimal. disabled
sql-browser-async-std SQL Browser implementation for the TcpStream of async-std. disabled
sql-browser-tokio SQL Browser implementation for the TcpStream of Tokio. disabled
sql-browser-smol SQL Browser implementation for the TcpStream of smol. disabled
integrated-auth-gssapi Support for using Integrated Auth via GSSAPI disabled
vendored-openssl On Linux and macOS platforms links statically against a vendored version of OpenSSL disabled

Supported protocols

Tiberius does not rely on any protocol when connecting to an SQL Server instance. Instead the Client takes a socket that implements the AsyncRead and AsyncWrite traits from the futures-rs crate.

Currently there are good async implementations for TCP in the async-std, Tokio and Smol projects. To be able to use them together with Tiberius on Windows platforms with SQL Server, TCP protocol should be enabled in the server settings (disabled by default). In the offficial Docker image TCP is is enabled by default.

Named pipes should work by using the NamedPipeClient from the latest Tokio versions.

The shared memory protocol is not documented and seems there are no Rust crates implementing it.

Encryption (TLS/SSL)

Tiberius has three encryption settings:

Encryption level Description
Required All traffic is encrypted.
Off Only the login procedure is encrypted. (default)
NotSupported None of the traffic is encrypted.

Some SQL Server databases, such as the public Docker image use a TLS certificate not accepted by Apple's Secure Transport. Therefore on macOS systems we use OpenSSL instead of Secure Transport, meaning by default Tiberius requires a working OpenSSL installation. By using a feature flag vendored-openssl the compilation links statically to a vendored version of OpenSSL, allowing encrypted connections from macOS.

Please be aware of the security implications if deciding to use vendoring.

Integrated Authentication (TrustedConnection) on *nix

With the integrated-auth-gssapi feature enabled, the crate requires the GSSAPI/Kerberos libraries/headers installed:

  • CentOS
  • Arch
  • Debian (you need the -dev packages to build)
  • Ubuntu
  • NixOS: Run nix-shell shell.nix on the repository root.
  • Mac: as of version 0.4.2 the libgssapi crate used for this feature now uses Apple's GSS Framework which ships with MacOS 10.14+.

Additionally, your runtime system will need to be trusted by and configured for the Active Directory domain your SQL Server is part of. In particular, you'll need to be able to get a valid TGT for your identity, via kinit or a keytab. This setup varies by environment and OS, but your friendly network/system administrator should be able to help figure out the specifics.


With certain Azure firewall settings, a login might return Error::Routing { host, port }. This means the user must create a new TcpStream to the given address, and connect again.

A simple connection procedure would then be:

use tiberius::{Client, Config, AuthMethod, error::Error};
use tokio_util::compat::TokioAsyncWriteCompatExt;
use tokio::net::TcpStream;

async fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn std::error::Error>> {
    let mut config = Config::new();

    config.authentication(AuthMethod::sql_server("SA", "<Mys3cureP4ssW0rD>"));

    let tcp = TcpStream::connect(config.get_addr()).await?;

    let client = match Client::connect(config, tcp.compat_write()).await {
        // Connection successful.
        Ok(client) => client,
        // The server wants us to redirect to a different address
        Err(Error::Routing { host, port }) => {
            let mut config = Config::new();

            config.authentication(AuthMethod::sql_server("SA", "<Mys3cureP4ssW0rD>"));

            let tcp = TcpStream::connect(config.get_addr()).await?;

            // we should not have more than one redirect, so we'll short-circuit here.
            Client::connect(config, tcp.compat_write()).await?
        Err(e) => Err(e)?,



If you have a security issue to report, please contact us at security@prisma.io


~156K SLoC