## nightly app kind2

A pure functional functional language that uses the HVM

### 65 releases

 0.3.10 May 11, 2023 Mar 3, 2023 Oct 1, 2022 Jul 27, 2022 Mar 17, 2022

#367 in Programming languages

17KB
319 lines

# Kind2

Kind2 is a functional programming language and proof assistant.

It is a complete rewrite of Kind1, based on HVM, a lazy, non-garbage-collected and massively parallel virtual machine. In our benchmarks, its type-checker outperforms every alternative proof assistant by a far margin, and its programs can offer exponential speedups over Haskell's GHC. Kind2 unleashes the inherent parallelism of the Lambda Calculus to become the ultimate programming language of the next century.

Welcome to the inevitable parallel, functional future of computers!

## Examples

Pure functions are defined via equations, as in Haskell:

``````// Applies a function to every element of a list
map <a> <b> (list: List a) (f: a -> b) : List b
map a b Nil              f = Nil
map a b (Cons head tail) f = Cons (f head) (map tail f)
``````

Side-effective programs are written via monads, resembling Rust and TypeScript:

``````// Prints the double of every number up to a limit
Main : IO (Result () String) {
ask limit = IO.prompt "Enter limit:"
for x in (List.range limit) {
IO.print "{} * 2 = {}" x (Nat.double x)
}
return Ok ()
}
``````

Theorems can be proved inductively, as in Agda and Idris:

``````// Black Friday Theorem. Proof that, for every Nat n: n * 2 / 2 == n.
black_friday_theorem (n: Nat) : Equal Nat (Nat.half (Nat.double n)) n
black_friday_theorem Nat.zero     = Equal.refl
black_friday_theorem (Nat.succ n) = Equal.apply (x => Nat.succ x) (black_friday_theorem n)
``````

For more examples, check the Kindex.

## Usage

First, install Rust first, then enter:

``````cargo +nightly install kind2
``````

### Warning:

New versions probably are not in `cargo`, so you can install the current version of kind2 by following these instructions:

1. Install Rust Nightly Toolchain
2. Clone the repository
3. `cargo install --path crates/kind-cli --force`

Then, use any of the commands below:

Command Usage Note
Check `kind2 check file.kind2` Checks all definitions.
Eval `kind2 eval file.kind2` Runs using the type-checker's evaluator.
Run `kind2 run file.kind2` Runs using HVM's evaluator, on Rust-mode.
To-HVM `kind2 to-hvm file.kind2` Generates a .hvm file. Can then be compiled to C.
To-KDL `kind2 to-kdl file.kind2` Generates a .kdl file. Can then be deployed to Kindelia.

Executables can be generated via HVM:

``````kind2 to-hvm file.kind2
hvm compile file.hvm
clang -O2 file.c -o file
./file
``````

~16–26MB
~314K SLoC