14 releases (stable)

new 1.2.0 Oct 25, 2020
1.1.2 Oct 24, 2020
0.2.1 Oct 3, 2020
0.1.1 Oct 3, 2020

#112 in Command line utilities

Download history 96/week @ 2020-09-29 82/week @ 2020-10-06 84/week @ 2020-10-13 120/week @ 2020-10-20

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MIT license

175KB
3K SLoC


feroxbuster

A simple, fast, recursive content discovery tool written in Rust

github downloads

demo

🦀 ReleasesExample UsageContributingDocumentation 🦀

😕 What the heck is a ferox anyway?

Ferox is short for Ferric Oxide. Ferric Oxide, simply put, is rust. The name rustbuster was taken, so I decided on a variation. 🤷

🤔 What's it do tho?

feroxbuster is a tool designed to perform Forced Browsing.

Forced browsing is an attack where the aim is to enumerate and access resources that are not referenced by the web application, but are still accessible by an attacker.

feroxbuster uses brute force combined with a wordlist to search for unlinked content in target directories. These resources may store sensitive information about web applications and operational systems, such as source code, credentials, internal network addressing, etc...

This attack is also known as Predictable Resource Location, File Enumeration, Directory Enumeration, and Resource Enumeration.

📖 Table of Contents

💿 Installation

Download a Release

Releases for multiple architectures can be found in the Releases section. The latest release for each of the following systems can be downloaded and executed as shown below.

Linux x86

curl -sLO https://github.com/epi052/feroxbuster/releases/latest/download/x86-linux-feroxbuster.zip
unzip x86-linux-feroxbuster.zip
chmod +x ./feroxbuster
./feroxbuster -V

Linux x86_64

curl -sLO https://github.com/epi052/feroxbuster/releases/latest/download/x86_64-linux-feroxbuster.zip
unzip x86_64-linux-feroxbuster.zip
chmod +x ./feroxbuster
./feroxbuster -V

MacOS x86_64

curl -sLO https://github.com/epi052/feroxbuster/releases/latest/download/x86_64-macos-feroxbuster.zip
unzip x86_64-macos-feroxbuster.zip
chmod +x ./feroxbuster
./feroxbuster -V

Windows x86

https://github.com/epi052/feroxbuster/releases/latest/download/x86-windows-feroxbuster.exe.zip
Expand-Archive .\feroxbuster.zip
.\feroxbuster\feroxbuster.exe -V

Windows x86_64

Invoke-WebRequest https://github.com/epi052/feroxbuster/releases/latest/download/x86_64-windows-feroxbuster.exe.zip -OutFile feroxbuster.zip
Expand-Archive .\feroxbuster.zip
.\feroxbuster\feroxbuster.exe -V

Homebrew on MacOS and Linux

Installable by Homebrew throughout own formulas:

🍏 MacOS

brew tap tgotwig/feroxbuster
brew install feroxbuster

🐧 Linux

brew tap tgotwig/linux-feroxbuster
brew install feroxbuster

Cargo Install

feroxbuster is published on crates.io, making it easy to install if you already have rust installed on your system.

cargo install feroxbuster

apt Install

Download feroxbuster_amd64.deb from the Releases section. After that, use your favorite package manager to install the .deb.

wget -sLO https://github.com/epi052/feroxbuster/releases/latest/download/feroxbuster_amd64.deb.zip
unzip feroxbuster_amd64.deb.zip
sudo apt install ./feroxbuster_amd64.deb

AUR Install

Install feroxbuster-git on Arch Linux with your AUR helper of choice:

yay -S feroxbuster-git

Docker Install

The following steps assume you have docker installed / setup

First, clone the repository.

git clone https://github.com/epi052/feroxbuster.git
cd feroxbuster

Next, build the image.

sudo docker build -t feroxbuster .

After that, you should be able to use docker run to perform scans with feroxbuster.

Basic usage

sudo docker run --init -it feroxbuster -u http://example.com -x js,html

Piping from stdin and proxying all requests through socks5 proxy

cat targets.txt | sudo docker run --net=host --init -i feroxbuster --stdin -x js,html --proxy socks5://127.0.0.1:9050

Mount a volume to pass in ferox-config.toml

You've got some options available if you want to pass in a config file. ferox-buster.toml can live in multiple locations and still be valid, so it's up to you how you'd like to pass it in. Below are a few valid examples:

sudo docker run --init -v $(pwd)/ferox-config.toml:/etc/feroxbuster/ferox-config.toml -it feroxbuster -u http://example.com
sudo docker run --init -v ~/.config/feroxbuster:/root/.config/feroxbuster -it feroxbuster -u http://example.com

Note: If you are on a SELinux enforced system, you will need to pass the :Z attribute also.

docker run --init -v (pwd)/ferox-config.toml:/etc/feroxbuster/ferox-config.toml:Z -it feroxbuster -u http://example.com

Define an alias for simplicity

alias feroxbuster="sudo docker run --init -v ~/.config/feroxbuster:/root/.config/feroxbuster -i feroxbuster"

⚙️ Configuration

Default Values

Configuration begins with with the following built-in default values baked into the binary:

  • timeout: 7 seconds
  • follow redirects: false
  • wordlist: /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/Web-Content/raft-medium-directories.txt
  • threads: 50
  • verbosity: 0 (no logging enabled)
  • scan_limit: 0 (no limit imposed on concurrent scans)
  • statuscodes: 200 204 301 302 307 308 401 403 405
  • useragent: feroxbuster/VERSION
  • recursion depth: 4
  • auto-filter wildcards - true
  • output: stdout

ferox-config.toml

After setting built-in default values, any values defined in a ferox-config.toml config file will override the built-in defaults.

feroxbuster searches for ferox-config.toml in the following locations (in the order shown):

  • /etc/feroxbuster/ (global)
  • CONFIG_DIR/ferxobuster/ (per-user)
  • The same directory as the feroxbuster executable (per-user)
  • The user's current working directory (per-target)

CONFIG_DIR is defined as the following:

  • Linux: $XDG_CONFIG_HOME or $HOME/.config i.e. /home/bob/.config
  • MacOs: $HOME/Library/Application Support i.e. /Users/bob/Library/Application Support
  • Windows: {FOLDERID_RoamingAppData} i.e. C:\Users\Bob\AppData\Roaming

If more than one valid configuration file is found, each one overwrites the values found previously.

If no configuration file is found, nothing happens at this stage.

As an example, let's say that we prefer to use a different wordlist as our default when scanning; we can set the wordlist value in the config file to override the baked-in default.

Notes of interest:

  • it's ok to only specify values you want to change without specifying anything else
  • variable names in ferox-config.toml must match their command-line counterpart
# ferox-config.toml

wordlist = "/wordlists/jhaddix/all.txt"

A pre-made configuration file with examples of all available settings can be found in ferox-config.toml.example.

# ferox-config.toml
# Example configuration for feroxbuster
#
# If you wish to provide persistent settings to feroxbuster, rename this file to ferox-config.toml and make sure
# it resides in the same directory as the feroxbuster binary.
#
# After that, uncomment any line to override the default value provided by the binary itself.
#
# Any setting used here can be overridden by the corresponding command line option/argument
#
# wordlist = "/wordlists/jhaddix/all.txt"
# statuscodes = [200, 500]
# threads = 1
# timeout = 5
# proxy = "http://127.0.0.1:8080"
# verbosity = 1
# scan_limit = 6
# quiet = true
# output = "/targets/ellingson_mineral_company/gibson.txt"
# useragent = "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64; rv:47.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/47.0"
# redirects = true
# insecure = true
# extensions = ["php", "html"]
# norecursion = true
# addslash = true
# stdin = true
# dontfilter = true
# extract_links = true
# depth = 1
# sizefilters = [5174]
# queries = [["name","value"], ["rick", "astley"]]

# headers can be specified on multiple lines or as an inline table
#
# inline example
# headers = {"stuff" = "things"}
#
# multi-line example
#   note: if multi-line is used, all key/value pairs under it belong to the headers table until the next table
#         is found or the end of the file is reached
#
# [headers]
# stuff = "things"
# more = "headers"

Command Line Parsing

Finally, after parsing the available config file, any options/arguments given on the commandline will override any values that were set as a built-in or config-file value.

USAGE:
    feroxbuster [FLAGS] [OPTIONS] --url <URL>...

FLAGS:
    -f, --addslash         Append / to each request
    -D, --dontfilter       Don't auto-filter wildcard responses
    -e, --extract-links    Extract links from response body (html, javascript, etc...); make new requests based on
                           findings (default: false)
    -h, --help             Prints help information
    -k, --insecure         Disables TLS certificate validation
    -n, --norecursion      Do not scan recursively
    -q, --quiet            Only print URLs; Don't print status codes, response size, running config, etc...
    -r, --redirects        Follow redirects
        --stdin            Read url(s) from STDIN
    -V, --version          Prints version information
    -v, --verbosity        Increase verbosity level (use -vv or more for greater effect)

OPTIONS:
    -d, --depth <RECURSION_DEPTH>           Maximum recursion depth, a depth of 0 is infinite recursion (default: 4)
    -x, --extensions <FILE_EXTENSION>...    File extension(s) to search for (ex: -x php -x pdf js)
    -H, --headers <HEADER>...               Specify HTTP headers (ex: -H Header:val 'stuff: things')
    -o, --output <FILE>                     Output file to write results to (default: stdout)
    -p, --proxy <PROXY>                     Proxy to use for requests (ex: http(s)://host:port, socks5://host:port)
    -Q, --query <QUERY>...                  Specify URL query parameters (ex: -Q token=stuff -Q secret=key)
    -L, --scan-limit <SCAN_LIMIT>           Limit total number of concurrent scans (default: 7)
    -S, --sizefilter <SIZE>...              Filter out messages of a particular size (ex: -S 5120 -S 4927,1970)
    -s, --statuscodes <STATUS_CODE>...      Status Codes of interest (default: 200 204 301 302 307 308 401 403 405)
    -t, --threads <THREADS>                 Number of concurrent threads (default: 50)
    -T, --timeout <SECONDS>                 Number of seconds before a request times out (default: 7)
    -u, --url <URL>...                      The target URL(s) (required, unless --stdin used)
    -a, --useragent <USER_AGENT>            Sets the User-Agent (default: feroxbuster/VERSION)
    -w, --wordlist <FILE>                   Path to the wordlist

🧰 Example Usage

Multiple Values

Options that take multiple values are very flexible. Consider the following ways of specifying extensions:

./feroxbuster -u http://127.1 -x pdf -x js,html -x php txt json,docx

The command above adds .pdf, .js, .html, .php, .txt, .json, and .docx to each url

All of the methods above (multiple flags, space separated, comma separated, etc...) are valid and interchangeable. The same goes for urls, headers, status codes, queries, and size filters.

Include Headers

./feroxbuster -u http://127.1 -H Accept:application/json "Authorization: Bearer {token}"

Extract Links from Response Body (New in v1.1.0)

Search through the body of valid responses (html, javascript, etc...) for additional endpoints to scan. This turns feroxbuster into a hybrid that looks for both linked and unlinked content.

Example request/response with --extract-links enabled:

  • Make request to http://example.com/index.html
  • Receive, and read in, the body of the response
  • Search the body for absolute and relative links (i.e. homepage/assets/img/icons/handshake.svg)
  • Add the following directories for recursive scanning:
    • http://example.com/homepage
    • http://example.com/homepage/assets
    • http://example.com/homepage/assets/img
    • http://example.com/homepage/assets/img/icons
  • Make a single request to http://example.com/homepage/assets/img/icons/handshake.svg
./feroxbuster -u http://127.1 --extract-links

IPv6, non-recursive scan with INFO-level logging enabled

./feroxbuster -u http://[::1] --norecursion -vv

Read urls from STDIN; pipe only resulting urls out to another tool

cat targets | ./feroxbuster --stdin --quiet -s 200 301 302 --redirects -x js | fff -s 200 -o js-files

Proxy traffic through Burp

./feroxbuster -u http://127.1 --insecure --proxy http://127.0.0.1:8080

Proxy traffic through a SOCKS proxy

./feroxbuster -u http://127.1 --proxy socks5://127.0.0.1:9050

Pass auth token via query parameter

./feroxbuster -u http://127.1 --query token=0123456789ABCDEF

Limit Total Number of Concurrent Scans (new in v1.2.0)

Limit the number of scans permitted to run at any given time. Recursion will still identify new directories, but newly discovered directories can only begin scanning when the total number of active scans drops below the value passed to --scan-limit.

./feroxbuster -u http://127.1 --scan-limit 2

limit-demo

🧐 Comparison w/ Similar Tools

There are quite a few similar tools for forced browsing/content discovery. Burp Suite Pro, Dirb, Dirbuster, etc... However, in my opinion, there are two that set the standard: gobuster and ffuf. Both are mature, feature-rich, and all-around incredible tools to use.

So, why would you ever want to use feroxbuster over ffuf/gobuster? In most cases, you probably won't. ffuf in particular can do the vast majority of things that feroxbuster can, while still offering boatloads more functionality. Here are a few of the use-cases in which feroxbuster may be a better fit:

  • You want a simple tool usage experience
  • You want to be able to run your content discovery as part of some crazy 12 command unix pipeline extravaganza
  • You want to scan through a SOCKS proxy
  • You want auto-filtering of Wildcard responses by default
  • You want an integrated link extractor to increase discovered endpoints
  • You want recursion along with some other thing mentioned above (ffuf also does recursion)
  • You want a configuration file option for overriding built-in default values for your scans
feroxbuster gobuster ffuf
fast
easy to use
blacklist status codes (in addition to whitelist)
allows recursion
can specify query parameters
SOCKS proxy support
extracts links from response body to increase scan coverage
multiple target scan (via stdin or multiple -u)
configuration file for default value override
can accept urls via STDIN as part of a pipeline
can accept wordlists via STDIN
filter by response size
auto-filter wildcard responses
performs other scans (vhost, dns, etc)
time delay / rate limiting
huge number of other options

Of note, there's another written-in-rust content discovery tool, rustbuster. I came across rustbuster when I was naming my tool (😢). I don't have any experience using it, but it appears to be able to do POST requests with an HTTP body, has SOCKS support, and has an 8.3 shortname scanner (in addition to vhost dns, directory, etc...). In short, it definitely looks interesting and may be what you're looking for as it has some capability I haven't seen in similar tools.

🤯 Common Problems/Issues (FAQ)

No file descriptors available

Why do I get a bunch of No file descriptors available (os error 24) errors?


There are a few potential causes of this error. The simplest is that your operating system sets an open file limit that is aggressively low. Through personal testing, I've found that 4096 is a reasonable open file limit (this will vary based on your exact setup).

There are quite a few options to solve this particular problem, of which a handful are shown below.

Increase the Number of Open Files

We'll start by increasing the number of open files the OS allows. On my Kali install, the default was 1024, and I know some MacOS installs use 256 😕.

Edit /etc/security/limits.conf

One option to up the limit is to edit /etc/security/limits.conf so that it includes the two lines below.

  • * represents all users
  • hard and soft indicate the hard and soft limits for the OS
  • nofile is the number of open files option.
/etc/security/limits.conf
-------------------------
...
*        soft nofile 4096
*        hard nofile 8192
...
Use ulimit directly

A faster option, that is not persistent, is to simply use the ulimit command to change the setting.

ulimit -n 4096

Additional Tweaks (may not be needed)

If you still find yourself hitting the file limit with the above changes, there are a few additional tweaks that may help.

This section was shamelessly stolen from this stackoverflow answer. More information is included in that post and is recommended reading if you end up needing to use this section.

✨ Special thanks to HTB user @sparkla for their help with identifying these additional tweaks ✨

Increase the ephemeral port range, and decrease the tcp_fin_timeout.

The ephermal port range defines the maximum number of outbound sockets a host can create from a particular I.P. address. The fin_timeout defines the minimum time these sockets will stay in TIME_WAIT state (unusable after being used once). Usual system defaults are

  • net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 32768 61000
  • net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 60

This basically means your system cannot consistently guarantee more than (61000 - 32768) / 60 = 470 sockets per second.

sudo sysctl net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range="15000 61000"
sudo sysctl net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout=30
Allow socket reuse while in a TIME_WAIT status

This allows fast cycling of sockets in time_wait state and re-using them. Make sure to read post Coping with the TCP TIME-WAIT from Vincent Bernat to understand the implications.

sudo sysctl net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse=1 

Dependencies

~9–15MB
~346K SLoC