#server #server-connection #api-server #http-request #witchcraft #applications

witchcraft-server

A highly opinionated embedded application server for RESTy APIs, compatible with the Witchcraft ecosystem

21 stable releases (3 major)

new 4.2.0 Jun 12, 2024
4.0.0-rc1 May 29, 2024
3.12.0 May 3, 2024
3.10.0 Jan 12, 2024
1.0.0 Mar 17, 2022

#62 in HTTP server

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4,321 downloads per month
Used in witchcraft-server-macros

Apache-2.0

745KB
20K SLoC

witchcraft-rust-server

Documentation

witchcraft-server is a Rust implementation of a Witchcraft server. It provides a way to quickly and easily create servers that work in the Witchcraft ecosystem. See the crate's documentation for more details.

License

This repository is made available under the Apache 2.0 License.


lib.rs:

A highly opinionated embedded application server for RESTy APIs.

Initialization

The entrypoint of a Witchcraft server is an initialization function annotated with #[witchcraft_server::main]:

use conjure_error::Error;
use refreshable::Refreshable;
use witchcraft_server::config::install::InstallConfig;
use witchcraft_server::config::runtime::RuntimeConfig;

#[witchcraft_server::main]
fn main(
    install: InstallConfig,
    runtime: Refreshable<RuntimeConfig>,
    wc: &mut Witchcraft,
) -> Result<(), Error> {
    wc.api(CustomApiEndpoints::new(CustomApiResource));

    Ok(())
}

The function is provided with the server's install and runtime configuration, as well as the Witchcraft object which can be used to configure the server. Once the initialization function returns, the server will start.

Note

The initialization function is expected to return quickly - any long-running work required should happen in the background.

Configuration

Witchcraft divides configuration into two categories:

  • Install - Configuration that is fixed for the lifetime of a service. For example, the port that the server listens on is part of the server's install configuration.
  • Runtime - Configuration that can dynamically update while the service is running. For example, the logging verbosity level is part of the server's runtime configuration.

Configuration is loaded from the var/conf/install.yml and var/conf/runtime.yml files respectively. The runtime.yml file is automatically checked for updates every few seconds.

Extension

The configuration files are deserialized into Rust types via the serde::Deserialize trait. witchcraft-server's own internal configuration is represented by the InstallConfig and RuntimeConfig types. Services that need their own configuration should embed the Witchcraft configuration within their own using the #[serde(flatten)] annotation and implement the AsRef trait:

use serde::Deserialize;
use witchcraft_server::config::install::InstallConfig;

#[derive(Deserialize)]
#[serde(rename_all = "kebab-case")]
struct MyInstallConfig {
    shave_yaks: bool,
    #[serde(flatten)]
    base: InstallConfig,
}

impl AsRef<InstallConfig> for MyInstallConfig {
    fn as_ref(&self) -> &InstallConfig {
        &self.base
    }
}

The service's custom configuration will then sit next to the standard Witchcraft configuration:

product-name: my-service
product-version: 1.0.0
port: 12345
shave-yaks: true

Sensitive values

The server's configuration deserializer supports two methods to handle sensitive values:

  • ${enc:5BBfGvf90H6bApwfx...} - inline in an encrypted form using serde_encrypted_value with the key stored in var/conf/encrypted-config-value.key.
  • ${file:/mnt/secrets/foo} - as a reference to a file containing the value using serde_file_value.

Refreshable runtime configuration

The server's runtime configuration is wrapped in the Refreshable type to allow code to properly handle updates to the configuration. Depending on the use case, implementations can use the Refreshable::get to retrieve the current state of the configuration when needed or the Refreshable::subscribe method to be notified of changes to the configuration as they happen. See the documentation of the refreshable crate for more details.

HTTP APIs

The server supports HTTP endpoints implementing the Service and AsyncService traits. These implementations can be generated from a Conjure YML definition with the conjure-codegen crate.

While we strongly encourage the use of Conjure-generated APIs, some services may need to expose endpoints that can't be defined in Conjure. The conjure_http::conjure_endpoints macro can be used to define arbitrary HTTP endpoints.

API endpoints should normally be registered with the Witchcraft::api and Witchcraft::blocking_api methods, which will place the endpoints under the /api route. If necessary, the Witchcraft::app and Witchcraft::blocking_app methods can be used to place the endpoints directly at the root route instead.

HTTP clients

Remote services are configured in the service-discovery section of the runtime configuration, and clients can be created from the ClientFactory returned by the Witchcraft::client_factory method. The clients will automatically update based on changes to the runtime configuration. See the documentation of the conjure_runtime crate for more details.

Status endpoints

The server exposes several "status" endpoints to report various aspects of the server.

Liveness

The /status/liveness endpoint returns a successful response to all requests, indicating that the server is alive.

Readiness

The /status/readiness endpoint returns a response indicating the server's readiness to handle requests to its endpoints. Deployment infrastructure uses the result of this endpoint to decide if requests should be routed to a given instance of the service. Custom readiness checks can be added to the server via the ReadinessCheckRegistry returned by the Witchcraft::readiness_checks method. Any long-running initialization logic should happen asynchronously and use a readiness check to indicate completion.

Health

The /status/health endpoint returns a response indicating the server's overall health. Deployment infrastructure uses the result of this endpoint to trigger alerts. Custom health checks can be added to the server via the HealthCheckRegistry returned by the Witchcraft::health_checks method. Requests to this endpoint must be authenticated with the health-checks.shared-secret bearer token in runtime configuration.

The server registers several built-in health checks:

  • CONFIG_RELOAD - Reports an error state if the runtime configuration failed to reload properly.
  • ENDPOINT_FIVE_HUNDREDS - Reports a warning if an endpoint has a high rate of 500 Internal Server Error responses.
  • SERVICE_DEPENDENCY - Tracks the status of requests made with HTTP clients created via the server's client factory, and reports a warning state of requests to a remote service have a high failure rate.
  • PANICS - Reports a warning if the server has panicked at any point.

Diagnostics

The /debug/diagnostic/{diagnosticType} endpoint returns diagnostic information. Requests to this endpoint must be authenticated with the diagnostics.debug-shared-secret bearer token in the runtime configuration.

Several diagnostic types are defined:

  • diagnostic.types.v1 - Returns a JSON-encoded list of all valid diagnostic types.
  • rust.heap.status.v1 - Returns detailed statistics about the state of the heap. Requires the jemalloc feature (enabled by default).
  • metric.names.v1 - Returns a JSON-encoded list of the names of all metrics registered with the server.
  • rust.thread.dump.v1 - Returns a stack trace of every thread in the process. Only supported when running on Linux.

Logging

witchcraft-server emits JSON-encoded logs following the witchcraft-api spec. By default, logs will be written to a file in var/log corresponding to the type of log message (service.log, request.log, etc). These files are automatically rotated and compressed based on a non-configurable policy. If running in a Docker container or if the use-console-log setting is enabled in the install configuration, logs will instead be written to standard out.

Service

The service log contains the messages emitted by invocations of the macros in the witchcraft_log crate. Messages emitted by the standard Rust [log] crate are additionally captured, but code that is written as part of a Witchcraft service should use witchcraft_log instead for better integration. See the documentation of that crate for more details.

Request

The request log records an entry for each HTTP request processed by the server. Parameters marked marked as safe by an endpoint's Conjure definition will be included as parameters in the log record.

Trace

The trace log records Zipkin-style trace spans. The server automatically creates spans for each incoming HTTP request based off of request's propagation metadata. Traces that have not alread had a sampling decision made will be sampled at the rate specified by the logging.trace-rate field in the server's runtime configuration, which defaults to 0.005%. Server logic can create additional spans with the zipkin crate. See the documentation of that crate for more details.

Metric

The metric log contains the values of metrics reporting the state of various components of the server. Metrics are recorded every 30 seconds. Server logic can create additional metrics with the MetricRegistry returned by the Witchcraft::metrics method. See the documentation of the witchcraft_metrics crate for more details.

Metrics

The server reports a variety of metrics by default:

Thread Pool

  • server.worker.max (gauge) - The configured maximum size of the server's thread pool used for requests to blocking endpoints.
  • server.worker.active (gauge) - The number of threads actively processing requests to blocking endpoints.
  • server.worker.utilization-max (gauge) - server.worker.active divided by server.worker.max. If this is 1, the server will immediately reject calls to blocking endpoints with a 503 Service Unavailable status code.

Logging

  • logging.queue (type: <log_type>) (gauge) - The number of log messages queued for output.

Process

  • process.heap (gauge) - The total number of bytes allocated from the heap. Requires the jemalloc feature (enabled by default).
  • process.heap.active (gauge) - The total number of bytes in active pages. Requires the jemalloc feature (enabled by default).
  • process.heap.resident (gauge) - The total number of bytes in physically resident pages. Requires the jemalloc feature (enabled by default).
  • process.uptime (gauge) - The number of microseconds that have elapsed since the server started.
  • process.panics (counter) - The number of times the server has panicked.
  • process.user-time (gauge) - The number of microseconds the process has spent running in user-space.
  • process.user-time.norm (gauge) - process.user-time divided by the number of CPU cores.
  • process.system-time (gauge) - The number of microseconds the process has spent either running in kernel-space or in uninterruptable IO wait.
  • process.system-time.norm (gauge) - process.system-time divided by the number of CPU cores.
  • process.blocks-read (gauge) - The number of filesystem blocks the server has read.
  • process.blocks-written (gauge) - The number of filesystem blocks the server has written.
  • process.threads (gauge) - The number of threads in the process.
  • process.filedescriptor (gauge) - The number of file descriptors held open by the process divided by the maximum number of files the server may hold open.

Connection

  • server.connection.active (counter) - The number of TCP sockets currently connected to the HTTP server.
  • server.connection.utilization (gauge) - server.connection.active divided by the maximum number of connections the server will accept.

TLS

  • tls.handshake (context: server, protocol: <protocol>, cipher: <cipher>) (meter) - The rate of TLS handshakes completed by the HTTP server.

Server

  • server.request.active (counter) - The number of requests being actively processed.
  • server.request.unmatched (meter) - The rate of 404 Not Found responses returned by the server.
  • server.response.all (meter) - The rate of responses returned by the server.
  • server.response.1xx (meter) - The rate of 1xx responses returned by the server.
  • server.response.2xx (meter) - The rate of 2xx responses returned by the server.
  • server.response.3xx (meter) - The rate of 3xx responses returned by the server.
  • server.response.4xx (meter) - The rate of 4xx responses returned by the server.
  • server.response.5xx (meter) - The rate of 5xx responses returned by the server.
  • server.response.500 (meter) - The rate of 500 Internal Server Error responses returned by the server.

Endpoints

  • server.response (service-name: <service_name>, endpoint: <endpoint>) (timer) - The amount of time required to process each request to the endpoint, including sending the entire response body.
  • server.response.error (service-name: <service_name>, endpoint: <endpoint>) (meter) - The rate of 5xx errors returned for requests to the endpoint.

HTTP clients

See the documentation of the conjure_runtime crate for the metrics reported by HTTP clients.

Dependencies

~41–56MB
~1M SLoC