32 releases (6 breaking)

new 0.6.1 Dec 7, 2023
0.5.1 Dec 3, 2023
0.4.1 Nov 30, 2023

#183 in Multimedia

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1,281 downloads per month

MIT and maybe LGPL-3.0-or-later

23K SLoC


Uiua (pronounced "wee-wuh") is a stack-based array programming language.

Documentation, examples, and an online interpreter can be found at uiua.org.

You can also check out the Discord server.

You can support Uiua's development via GitHub Sponsors.


You can try the language without installing anything on the website.

If you want to install the interpreter locally there are 2 options:

  • If you are on Windows, you can simply download the latest release.

  • If you are not on Windows, you will need to install via Cargo. This requires Rust to be installed.

    You can install with:

    cargo install uiua

    The following optional features are available (enabled by passing --features <feature>):

    • bytes: Enables byte arrays, which behave identically to numeric arrays but take up less space.
      • Byte arrays are returned by certain IO system functions.
    • audio: Enables audio system functions

    If you want audio on Linux, you may need to install some dependencies first:

    apt install libasound2-dev libudev-dev pkg-config
  • If you want the most recent development version of Uiua, you can install from the git repository.

    cargo install --git https://github.com/uiua-lang/uiua uiua

Language Server

The interpreter has a built-in language server that implements the Language Server Protocol.

A language client extension is available for VSCode here.

The language client requires that the interpreter is installed locally and available on your PATH.

Formatter Configuration

You can configure Uiua's formatter by creating a file called .fmt.ua in the directory from which you run the interpreter. This configuration file is also a Uiua program.

Configuration options are specified by binding values to specific names.

Example with default values:

TrailingNewline ← 1
CommentSpaceAfterHash ← 1
MultilineIndent ← 2
CompactMultilineMode ← "auto"
AlignComments ← 1
IndentItemImports ← 1

The following configuration options are available:


Type: boolean

Default: 1

Whether to add a trailing newline to a file.


Type: boolean

Default: 1

Whether to insert a space after a # in a comment if there is not one already.


Type: natural number

Default: 2

The number of spaces to indent each line of a multiline expression.


Type: one of "always", "never", or "auto"

Default: "auto"

How to format multiline expressions.

  • "always": Always format multiline expressions in compact mode.
  • "never": Never format multiline expressions in compact mode.
  • "auto": Format multiline expressions in compact mode if they exceed MultilineCompactThreshold.


Type: natural number

Default: 10

The maximum a columns a multiline expression can start on before it stops being formatted in compact mode.

Only used if CompactMultilineMode is "auto".


Type: boolean

Default: 1

Whether to align consecutive end-of-line comments.


Type: boolean

Default: 1

Whether to indent item imports. Respects MultilineIndent.


~790K SLoC