### 24 releases (8 stable)

Uses new Rust 2021

1.2.3 | Nov 26, 2021 |
---|---|

1.1.2 | Sep 14, 2021 |

0.5.2 | Apr 19, 2021 |

0.4.1 | Mar 30, 2021 |

#**5** in Multimedia

**100** downloads per month

Used in **4** crates

**MIT**license

120KB

1.5K
SLoC

# Rust: library for frequency spectrum analysis using FFT

A simple and fast

library to get the frequency spectrum of a digital signal (e.g. audio) using FFT.
It follows the KISS principle and consists of simple building blocks/optional features. In short, this is
a convenient wrapper around several FFT implementations which you can choose from during compilation time
via Cargo features.`no_std`

**I'm not an expert on digital signal processing. Code contributions are highly welcome! 🙂**

The **MSRV** (minimum supported Rust version) is 1.56.1 stable, because this crate uses
Rust edition 2021.

## I want to understand how FFT can be used to get a spectrum

Please see file /EDUCATIONAL.md.

## How to use (including `no_std`

-environments)

`no_std`

Most tips and comments are located inside the code, so please check out the repository on Github! Anyway, the most basic usage looks like this:

### FFT implementation as compile time configuration via Cargo features

By default this crate uses the

-module from the great `real`

-crate. It's the fastest implementation
and as of version `microfft`

there should be no valid reason why you should ever change this. The multiple features
are there mainly for educational reasons and to support me while programming/testing.`v0 .5.0`

### Cargo.toml

`# by default feature "microfft-real" is used`
`[``dependencies``]`
`spectrum-analyzer ``=` `"`<latest version, see crates.io>`"`
`# or if you need another feature (FFT implementation)`
`[``dependencies.spectrum-analyzer``]`
`default-features ``=` `false` `# important! only one feature at a time works!`
`version ``=` `"`<latest version, see crates.io>`"`
`features ``=` `[``"`rustfft-complex`"``]` `# or on of the other features`

### your_binary.rs

`use` `spectrum_analyzer``::``{`samples_fft_to_spectrum`,` FrequencyLimit`}``;`
`use` `spectrum_analyzer``::``windows``::`hann_window`;`
`use` `spectrum_analyzer``::``scaling``::`divide_by_N`;`
`///` Minimal example.
`fn` `main``(``)`` ``{`
`//` YOU need to implement the samples source; get microphone input for example
`let` samples`:` `&``[``f32``]` `=` `&``[``0.``0``,` `3.``14``,` `2.``718``,` `-``1.``0``,` `-``2.``0``,` `-``4.``0``,` `7.``0``,` `6.``0``]``;`
`//` apply hann window for smoothing; length must be a power of 2 for the FFT
`//` 2048 is a good starting point with 44100 kHz
`let` hann_window `=` `hann_window``(``&`samples`[``0``..``8``]``)``;`
`//` calc spectrum
`let` spectrum_hann_window `=` `samples_fft_to_spectrum``(`
`//` (windowed) samples
`&`hann_window`,`
`//` sampling rate
`44100``,`
`//` optional frequency limit: e.g. only interested in frequencies 50 <= f <= 150?
`FrequencyLimit``::`All`,`
`//` optional scale
`Some``(``&`divide_by_N`)``,`
`)``.``unwrap``(``)``;`
`for` `(`fr`,` fr_val`)` `in` spectrum_hann_window`.``data``(``)``.``iter``(``)` `{`
`println!``(``"``{}`Hz => `{}``"``,` fr`,` fr_val`)`
`}`
`}`

## Performance

*Measurements taken on i7-1165G7 @ 2.80GHz (Single-threaded) with optimized build*

Operation | Time |
---|---|

Hann Window with 4096 samples | ≈68µs |

Hamming Window with 4096 samples | ≈118µs |

FFT ( ) to spectrum with 4096 samples |
≈170µs |

FFT ( ) to spectrum with 4096 samples |
≈90µs |

FFT ( ) to spectrum with 4096 samples |
≈250µs |

## Example Visualizations

In the following examples you can see a basic visualization of the spectrum from

for
a layered signal of sine waves of `0` to 4000Hz

, `50`

, and `1000`

@ `3777Hz`

sampling rate. The peaks for the
given frequencies are clearly visible. Each calculation was done with `44100Hz`

samples, i.e. ≈46ms of audio signal.`2048`

**The noise (wrong peaks) also comes from clipping of the added sine waves!**

### Spectrum *without window function* on samples

Peaks (50, 1000, 3777 Hz) are clearly visible but also some noise.

### Spectrum with *Hann window function* on samples before FFT

Peaks (50, 1000, 3777 Hz) are clearly visible and Hann window reduces noise a little bit. Because this example has few noise, you don't see much difference.

### Spectrum with *Hamming window function* on samples before FFT

Peaks (50, 1000, 3777 Hz) are clearly visible and Hamming window reduces noise a little bit. Because this example has few noise, you don't see much difference.

## Live Audio + Spectrum Visualization

Execute example

. It will show you
how you can visualize audio data in realtime + the current spectrum.`$`` cargo run --release --example live-visualization`

## Building and Executing Tests

To execute tests you need the package

(on Ubuntu/Debian). This is required because
not all tests are "automatic unit tests" but also tests that you need to check visually, by looking at the
generated diagram of the spectrum.`libfreetype6-dev`

## Trivia / FAQ

### Why f64 and no f32?

I tested f64 but the additional accuracy doesn't pay out the ~40% calculation overhead (on x86_64).

### What can I do against the noise?

Apply a window function, like Hann window or Hamming window. But I'm not an expert on this.

## Good resources with more information

- Interpreting FFT Results: https://www.gaussianwaves.com/2015/11/interpreting-fft-results-complex-dft-frequency-bins-and-fftshift/
- FFT basic concepts: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z7X6jgFnB6Y
- „The Fundamentals of FFT-Based Signal Analysis and Measurement“ https://www.sjsu.edu/people/burford.furman/docs/me120/FFT_tutorial_NI.pdf
- Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) and Windowing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCeHOf4cJE0

Also check out my blog post! https://phip1611.de/2021/03/programmierung-und-skripte/frequency-spectrum-analysis-with-fft-in-rust/

#### Dependencies

~0.4–1MB

~18K SLoC