#aws #iot #encryption #fleet-provisioning #device-shadow


Bridge between messaging of the device and the cloud IoT (e.g., AWS)

2 stable releases

Uses new Rust 2021

new 1.1.0 Jun 23, 2022
1.0.0 Jun 5, 2022

#62 in Hardware support

Download history 9/week @ 2022-05-30 17/week @ 2022-06-06 2/week @ 2022-06-13 23/week @ 2022-06-20

51 downloads per month

MIT license

2.5K SLoC


This repository contains the components library and a running application in Rust for IoT MQTT messaging, Fleet Provisioning and Device Shadow.

IoT Bridge Design

IoT Bridge Design

The graphics shows the basic design, where the currently implemented components are indicated with continuous lines.

These components implement following functionality:

  • basic configuration operations (configuration attributes stored in config.yaml file)
  • basic message client operations:
    • connect to cloud IoT (AWS IoT Core or alternate system)
    • connect to device via MQTT (it can be extended to other messaging system like AMQP, DDS/ROS2)
    • listen to incoming events
    • subscribe to topic
    • publish to topic
  • fleet provisioning implementing AWS "Provisioning by Claim" workflow with CreateCertificateFromCsr
  • basic device adapter operations
    • mapping of device event topics to IoT topics
    • filtering device incoming events
    • standardize the message format to standard (cloudevents.io) with extensions
  • device shadows (AWS)
    • device_shadow
      • setting rules for events mapping
      • setting rules for events filtering
    • iot_shadow
      • certificate rotation request (by setting the parameter in the cloud shadow the IoT Bridge starts CSR based certificate renewal)
      • cryptographic information about method and ciphers for payload encryption (tbi when applicable)
      • cryptographic information about method and ciphers for payload anonymization (tbi when applicable)

For details see the IoT Bridge code documentation at artifacts download.

IoT Bridge Tasks Interaction

The IoT Bridge uses extensively the asynchronous multi-thread processing. The task interactions are summarized in the graphic below. This is a mermaid drawing well visible in markdown of Gitlab and Github but not in some other environments, like crates.io.

Remark: The device_interface and iot_interface are not explicit IoT Bridge tasks, but rather the corresponding connections to the corresponding messaging interfaces.

  participant DI as device_interface
  participant DM as device_monitor_thread
  participant DR as device_receiver_thread
  participant DS as device_shadow_thread
  participant IS as iot_shadow_thread
  participant IT as iot_transmitter_thread
  participant IR as iot_receiver_thread
  participant IM as iot_monitor_thread
  participant II as iot_interface

  II-)IM: receive MQTT message
  IM-)IR: receive event
  IR->>IR: connector_aws::on_iot_event
  alt event for IoT Shadow
    IR-)IT: send response to IoT
    IR-)IS: send shadow value
    IS->>IS: trigger cert rotation
  else event for Device Shadow
    IR-)IT: send response to IoT
    IR-)DS: send shadow value
    DS->>DS: device_adapter::on_receive_device_shadow

  DI-)DM: receive MQTT message
  DM-)DR: receive event 
  DR->>DR: device_adapter::on_device_event
  DR-)IT: send device message to IoT
  IT-)II: send MQTT device message to IoT

Device Shadow Interaction

Based on the Reference Architecture in DEVICE SHADOWS - MQTT TOPICS. This implementation differentiates between the Device State (an object as Rust struct) and the Local Shadow (a copy of Device State as serde_json::Value with additional info) The sequence diagram below covers the main "positive" cases (i.e., no rejection).

Observation: UPDATE_DELTA is not send when the value of an attribute is set to null.

  participant D as Device State
  participant I as IoT Bridge
  participant L as Shadow @ Device
  participant R as Shadow @ Cloud
  participant C as Cloud Application

  Note right of L: Shadow Subscription

  Note right of L: Fleet Provisioning
  I-)R: UPDATE[reported] (Initialize IoT Bridge / Connector State Shadow at Provisioning with Defaults)
  I-)R: UPDATE[desired & reported] (Initialize Device State Shadow at Provisioning with Defaults)
  R-)L: UPDATE_ACCEPTED (Device State)
  L->>D: Transform & Store

  Note right of L: IoT Bridge Start
  I-)R: UPDATE[reported] (Send IoT Bridge / Connector State)
  L-)R: GET (Get Device State Shadow at Start)
  L->>D: Transform & Store

  Note right of L: Change by Cloud Application (filtering / mapping)
  C->>R: UPDATE[desired] (filter/map change)
  R-)L: UPDATE_DELTA (Device State Shadow)
  par Shadow@Device to Shadow@Cloud
    L-)R: UPDATE[reported] (Device State Shadow)
  and Shadow@Device to Device State
    L-)D: Transform & Store

  Note right of L: Certificate Rotation by Cloud Application
  C->>R: UPDATE[desired] (cert rotation request)
  R-)L: UPDATE_DELTA (IoT Bridge / Connector State Shadow)
  par Shadow@Device to Shadow@Cloud
    L-)R: UPDATE[reported] (IoT Bridge / Connector State Shadow)
  and Shadow@Device to IoT Bridge / Connector
    L-)I: Initiate Certificate Rotation
  I->>I: Execute Certificate Rotation

IoT Bridge Configuration

The IoT Bridge configuration section device is specific for the device and will not be discussed here.

The iot section configures the connectivity to the IoT infrastructure -- below focusing on the AWS solutions.

All values below are placeholders only -- replace with your proprietary values.

IoT Connectivity

These elements can be left as defined if not specific requirements need to be considered.

  shadow_name: iot_shadow
  client_registration_status: INITIAL
  ca_path: AmazonRootCA1.pem

The elements below are specific to the IoT connection of a group / a fleet of devices:

  iot_topic_prefix: SPDIF/X320/16A8/
  client_id: 16A8_99998
  endpoint: ENDPOINTID-ats.iot.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com
  port: 8883

Fleet Provisioning

For the AWS Fleet Provisioning the listed below elements of the configuration should be prepared and stored correspondingly, e.g., in the device-iot.config/certs folder:

  claim_cert_path: ClaimCertificate.pem
  claim_priv_key_path: ClaimPrivateKey.pem
  claim_pub_key_path: ClaimPubKey.pem

Additionally the Fleet Provisioning template is required and should be referenced (e.g., provisioning_template_name: iot-16A8-prov-templ) and the corresponding provisioning policies and device policies defined. See AWS documentation for details.

The registration status client_registration_status: INITIAL triggers the Fleet Provisioning. After successful registration the state changes to REGISTERED:thingname

The below listed client (device instance) specific elements will be generated during the Fleet Provisioning

  client_cert_path: IotCertificate.pem
  client_priv_key_path: IotPrivateKey.pem
  client_pub_key_path: IotPubKey.pem

Data Payload Encryption

In environments demanding high confidentiality a data payload encryption may be required in addition to using secure channels (like mTLS). It is particularly interesting for end-to-end confidentiality between the source (device) and the receiver of the events. Functionality implementing the data payload encryption uses ECIES (Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme) built upon AES-GCM-256 and HKDF-SHA256 and using the secp256k1 curve.

The method is implemented in interoperable libraries in Golang, Python, Rust and Typescript ... i.e., these languages used also in the backend (e.g., the decryption lambda in Golang -- see decryption-lambda-go in the testing folder).

This encryption framework is standardized as: ISO/IEC 18033-2:2006 and also described in the chapter 5.1 in the Standards for Efficient Cryptography Group.

The encryption can be "switched-on/-off" and the public keys should be distributed using the IotShadow, e.g.:

  "iot_registration_status": {
    "Registered": "98765"
  "data_encryption_config": {
    "method": "EciesSecp256k1",
    "public_key": [

Remark: The secrets are obviously stored in secure facilities, like the AWS Secret Manager.


~465K SLoC