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#30 in WebSocket

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gnostr-cat

Crates.io Crates.io Crates.io

gnostr-cat is part of the gnostr.org command line utility suite.

Websocket client command line tool for nostr relay scripting, with docker and tor support

Examples

Using interactive input

$ gnostr-cat wss://relay.damus.io <return>
["REQ", "RAND", {"kinds": [1], "limit": 8}] <return>
<ctrl-D>

Using stdin (supports multiple lines of commands)

$ echo '["REQ", "RAND", {"kinds": [1], "limit": 8}]' |
  gnostr-cat wss://relay.damus.io

$ cat commands.txt
["REQ", "RAND", {"kinds": [1], "limit": 2}]
["REQ", "RAND2", {"kinds": [2], "limit": 2}]

$ cat commands.txt | gnost-cat wss://relay.damus.io

Using jq to query Nostr JSON events and select the event JSON

$ echo '["REQ", "RAND", {"kinds": [1], "limit": 8}]' |
  gnostr-cat wss://relay.damus.io |
  jq '.[2]'

$ echo '["REQ", "RAND", {"kinds": [1], "limit": 8}]' |
  gnostr-cat wss://relay.damus.io |
  jq '.[2].content'

Unique (dedupe) results as they come in (note: no longer applies sorting events - FIFO)

$ echo '["REQ", "RAND", {"kinds": [1], "limit": 8}]' |
  gnostr-cat --unique wss://relay.damus.io wss://nostr.ono.re

With a websocket connection timeout in milliseconds

$ echo '["REQ", "RAND", {"kinds": [1], "limit": 2}]' |
  gnostr-cat --connect-timeout 250 wss://relay.damus.io

Stream websocket data (like tail -f)

$ echo '["REQ", "RAND", {"kinds": [1], "limit": 8}]' |
  gnostr-cat --stream wss://relay.damus.io

Output info log messages which can assist with debugging

$ echo '["REQ", "RAND", {"kinds": [1], "limit": 8}]' |
  RUST_LOG=info gnostr-cat wss://relay.damus.io

Pipe events from one server to another (currently limited to 1 event at a time)

$ echo '["REQ", "RAND", {"limit": 1}]' |
  gnostr-cat wss://relay.damus.io |
  jq -c 'del(.[1])' |
  gnostr-cat wss://nostr.ono.re

Pipe events from one server to another (for multiple events, ctrl-C when finished)

$ echo '["REQ", "RAND", {"limit": 3}]' |
  gnostr-cat wss://relay.damus.io |
  jq -c 'del(.[1])' |
  gnostr-cat --stream wss://nostr.ono.re
  <ctrl-C>

Getting started

Using Cargo to install (requires ~/.cargo/bin to be in PATH)

$ cargo install gnostr-cat

Building from source (may be unstable)

$ git clone https://github.com/gnostr-org/gnostr-cat && cd gnostr-cat
$ cargo build --release

Running inside a Docker image

$ docker build -t gnostr-cat .

# Run the the docker image as an executable
$ echo '["REQ", "RAND", {"kinds": [1], "limit": 2}]' | docker run --rm -i gnostr-cat wss://relay.damus.io
checkout websocat

websocat

Netcat, curl and socat for WebSockets.

Gitter

Examples

Connect to public echo server

$ websocat ws://ws.vi-server.org/mirror
123
123
ABC
ABC

Serve and connect

A$ websocat -s 1234
Listening on ws://127.0.0.1:1234/
ABC
123

B$ websocat ws://127.0.0.1:1234/
ABC
123

Open a tab in Chromium using remote debugging.

$ chromium --remote-debugging-port=9222&
$ curl -sg http://127.0.0.1:9222/json/new | grep webSocketDebuggerUrl | cut -d'"' -f4 | head -1
ws://127.0.0.1:9222/devtools/page/A331E56CCB8615EB4FCB720425A82259
$ echo 'Page.navigate {"url":"https://example.com"}' | websocat -n1 --jsonrpc --jsonrpc-omit-jsonrpc ws://127.0.0.1:9222/devtools/page/A331E56CCB8615EB4FCB720425A82259
{"id":2,"result":{"frameId":"A331E56CCB8615EB4FCB720425A82259","loaderId":"EF5AAD19F2F8BB27FAF55F94FFB27DF9"}}

Proxy TCP connections to WebSocket connections and back.

$ websocat --oneshot -b ws-l:127.0.0.1:1234 tcp:127.0.0.1:22&
$ websocat --oneshot -b tcp-l:127.0.0.1:1236 ws://127.0.0.1:1234/&
$ nc 127.0.0.1 1236
SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_7.4p1 Debian-10+deb9u3
qwertyu
Protocol mismatch.

Broadcast all messages between connected WebSocket clients

A$ websocat -t ws-l:127.0.0.1:1234 broadcast:mirror:
B$ websocat ws://127.0.0.1:1234
C$ websocat ws://127.0.0.1:1234

(if you like this one, you may actually want https://github.com/vi/wsbroad/ instead)

See moreexamples.md for further examples.

Features

  • Connecting to and serving WebSockets from command line.
  • Executing external program and making it communicate to WebSocket using stdin/stdout.
  • Text and binary modes, converting between lines (or null-terminated records) and messages.
  • Inetd mode, UNIX sockets (including abstract namespaced on Linux).
  • Integration with Nginx using TCP or UNIX sockets.
  • Directly using unauthenticated SOCKS5 servers for connecting to WebSockets and listening WebSocket connection.
  • Auto-reconnect and connection-reuse modes.
  • Linux, Windows and Mac support, with pre-built executables.
  • Low-level WebSocket clients and servers with overridable underlying transport connection, e.g. calling external program to serve as a transport for websocat (for SSL, proxying, etc.).

Installation

There are multiple options for installing WebSocat. From easy to hard:

  • If you're on Fedora, you can install WebSocat from Copr: sudo dnf copr enable atim/websocat -y && sudo dnf install websocat
  • If you're on FreeBSD, you may install WebSocat with the following command: pkg install websocat.
  • If you're on Linux Debian or Ubuntu (or other dpkg-based), try downloading a pre-build executable from GitHub releases. Websocat is not yet officially packaged for Debian. Some older versions of Websocat may also have Debian package files available on Github releases.
  • If you're on macOS, you can do:
    • brew install websocat using Homebrew
    • sudo port install websocat using MacPorts
  • Download a pre-build executable and install it to PATH.
  • Install the Rust toolchain and do cargo install --features=ssl websocat. If something fails with a -sys crate, try without --features=ssl;
  • Build Websocat from source code (see below), then move target/release/websocat somewhere to the PATH.

Pre-built binaries for Linux (usual and musl), Windows, OS X and Android are available on the releases page.

Building from source code

  1. Install the Rust toolchain. Note that Websocat v1 (i.e. the current stable version) may fail to support too new Rust due to its old dependencies which can be broken by e.g. this.
  2. cargo build --release --features=ssl.
  3. Find the executable somewhere under target/, e.g. in target/release/websocat.

Rust versions

Websocat versions Minimal Rust version Maximal Rust version
1.9 - 1.11 1.46 maybe 1.63
1.6 - 1.8 1.34 maybe 1.63
1.3 - 1.5 1.31 1.47?
1.2 1.28 1.47?
1.0-1.1 1.23 1.47?
1.2 ? ?

Note that building with legacy Rust version (e.g. 1.46) may require manually copying Cargo.lock.legacy to Cargo.lock prior to the building.

Early non-async versions of Websocat should be buildable by even older rustc.

Note that old versions of Websocat may misbehave if built by Rust 1.48 or later due to https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/pull/71274/.

It may be not a good idea to build v1.x line of Websocat with Rust 1.64 due to [IP address representation refactor]. It may expose previously hidden undefined behaviour in legacy dependencies. (In practice, it seems to just work though - but a lot of time passed since I checked Websocat properly and in detail).

SSL on Android

websocat's wss:// may fail on Android. As a workaround, download certificate bundle, for example, from https://curl.haxx.se/ca/cacert.pem and specify it explicitly:

SSL_CERT_FILE=cacert.pem /data/local/tmp/websocat wss://echo.websocket.org

Or just use --insecure option.

Documentation

Basic usage examples are provided at the top of this README and in --help message. More tricks are described in moreexamples.md.

There is a list of all address types and overlays.

`websocat --help=long` output
websocat 1.12.0
Vitaly "_Vi" Shukela <vi0oss@gmail.com>
Command-line client for web sockets, like netcat/curl/socat for ws://.

USAGE:
    websocat ws://URL | wss://URL               (simple client)
    websocat -s port                            (simple server)
    websocat [FLAGS] [OPTIONS] <addr1> <addr2>  (advanced mode)

FLAGS:
        --stdout-announce-listening-ports       [A] Print a line to stdout for each port being listened
        --async-stdio                           [A] On UNIX, set stdin and stdout to nonblocking mode instead of
                                                spawning a thread. This should improve performance, but may break other
                                                programs running on the same console.
        --compress-deflate                      [A] Compress data coming to a WebSocket using deflate method. Affects
                                                only binary WebSocket messages.
        --compress-gzip                         [A] Compress data coming to a WebSocket using gzip method. Affects only
                                                binary WebSocket messages.
        --compress-zlib                         [A] Compress data coming to a WebSocket using zlib method. Affects only
                                                binary WebSocket messages.
        --crypto-reverse                        [A] Swap encryption and decryption operations in `crypto:` specifier -
                                                encrypt on read, decrypto on write.
        --dump-spec                             [A] Instead of running, dump the specifiers representation to stdout
    -e, --set-environment                       Set WEBSOCAT_* environment variables when doing exec:/cmd:/sh-c:
                                                Currently it's WEBSOCAT_URI and WEBSOCAT_CLIENT for
                                                request URI and client address (if TCP)
                                                Beware of ShellShock or similar security problems.
    -E, --exit-on-eof                           Close a data transfer direction if the other one reached EOF
        --foreachmsg-wait-read                  [A] Wait for reading to finish before closing foreachmsg:'s peer
        --jsonrpc                               Format messages you type as JSON RPC 2.0 method calls. First word
                                                becomes method name, the rest becomes parameters, possibly automatically
                                                wrapped in [].
        --jsonrpc-omit-jsonrpc                  [A] Omit `jsonrpc` field when using `--jsonrpc`, e.g. for Chromium
        --just-generate-key                     [A] Just a Sec-WebSocket-Key value without running main Websocat
        --linemode-strip-newlines               [A] Don't include trailing \n or \r\n coming from streams in WebSocket
                                                messages
    -0, --null-terminated                       Use \0 instead of \n for linemode
        --no-line                               [A] Don't automatically insert line-to-message transformation
        --no-exit-on-zeromsg                    [A] Don't exit when encountered a zero message. Zero messages are used
                                                internally in Websocat, so it may fail to close connection at all.
        --no-fixups                             [A] Don't perform automatic command-line fixups. May destabilize
                                                websocat operation. Use --dump-spec without --no-fixups to discover what
                                                is being inserted automatically and read the full manual about Websocat
                                                internal workings.
        --no-async-stdio                        [A] Inhibit using stdin/stdout in a nonblocking way if it is not a tty
    -1, --one-message                           Send and/or receive only one message. Use with --no-close and/or -u/-U.
        --oneshot                               Serve only once. Not to be confused with -1 (--one-message)
        --print-ping-rtts                       Print measured round-trip-time to stderr after each received WebSocket
                                                pong.
        --exec-exit-on-disconnect               [A] Make exec: or sh-c: or cmd: immediately exit when connection is
                                                closed, don't wait for termination.
        --exec-sighup-on-stdin-close            [A] Make exec: or sh-c: or cmd: send SIGHUP on UNIX when input is
                                                closed.
        --exec-sighup-on-zero-msg               [A] Make exec: or sh-c: or cmd: send SIGHUP on UNIX when facing incoming
                                                zero-length message.
    -q                                          Suppress all diagnostic messages, except of startup errors
        --reuser-send-zero-msg-on-disconnect    [A] Make reuse-raw: send a zero-length message to the peer when some
                                                clients disconnects.
    -s, --server-mode                           Simple server mode: specify TCP port or addr:port as single argument
    -S, --strict                                strict line/message mode: drop too long messages instead of splitting
                                                them, drop incomplete lines.
        --timestamp-monotonic                   [A] Use monotonic clock for `timestamp:` overlay
    -k, --insecure                              Accept invalid certificates and hostnames while connecting to TLS
        --udp-broadcast                         [A] Set SO_BROADCAST
        --udp-multicast-loop                    [A] Set IP[V6]_MULTICAST_LOOP
        --udp-oneshot                           [A] udp-listen: replies only one packet per client
        --udp-reuseaddr                         [A] Set SO_REUSEADDR for UDP socket. Listening TCP sockets are always
                                                reuseaddr.
        --uncompress-deflate                    [A] Uncompress data coming from a WebSocket using deflate method.
                                                Affects only binary WebSocket messages.
        --uncompress-gzip                       [A] Uncompress data coming from a WebSocket using deflate method.
                                                Affects only binary WebSocket messages.
        --uncompress-zlib                       [A] Uncompress data coming from a WebSocket using deflate method.
                                                Affects only binary WebSocket messages.
    -u, --unidirectional                        Inhibit copying data in one direction
    -U, --unidirectional-reverse                Inhibit copying data in the other direction (or maybe in both directions
                                                if combined with -u)
        --accept-from-fd                        [A] Do not call `socket(2)` in UNIX socket listener peer, start with
                                                `accept(2)` using specified file descriptor number as argument instead
                                                of filename
        --unlink                                [A] Unlink listening UNIX socket before binding to it
    -V, --version                               Prints version information
    -v                                          Increase verbosity level to info or further
    -b, --binary                                Send message to WebSockets as binary messages
    -n, --no-close                              Don't send Close message to websocket on EOF
        --websocket-ignore-zeromsg              [A] Silently drop incoming zero-length WebSocket messages. They may
                                                cause connection close due to usage of zero-len message as EOF flag
                                                inside Websocat.
    -t, --text                                  Send message to WebSockets as text messages
        --base64                                Encode incoming binary WebSocket messages in one-line Base64 If
                                                `--binary-prefix` (see `--help=full`) is set, outgoing WebSocket
                                                messages that start with the prefix are decoded from base64 prior to
                                                sending.
        --base64-text                           [A] Encode incoming text WebSocket messages in one-line Base64. I don't
                                                know whether it can be ever useful, but it's for symmetry with
                                                `--base64`.

OPTIONS:
        --socks5 <auto_socks5>
            Use specified address:port as a SOCKS5 proxy. Note that proxy authentication is not supported yet. Example:
            --socks5 127.0.0.1:9050
        --autoreconnect-delay-millis <autoreconnect_delay_millis>
            [A] Delay before reconnect attempt for `autoreconnect:` overlay. [default: 20]

        --basic-auth <basic_auth>
            Add `Authorization: Basic` HTTP request header with this base64-encoded parameter

        --queue-len <broadcast_queue_len>
            [A] Number of pending queued messages for broadcast reuser [default: 16]

    -B, --buffer-size <buffer_size>                                  Maximum message size, in bytes [default: 65536]
        --byte-to-exit-on <byte_to_exit_on>
            [A] Override the byte which byte_to_exit_on: overlay looks for [default: 28]

        --client-pkcs12-der <client_pkcs12_der>                      [A] Client identity TLS certificate
        --client-pkcs12-passwd <client_pkcs12_passwd>
            [A] Password for --client-pkcs12-der pkcs12 archive. Required on Mac.

        --close-reason <close_reason>
            Close connection with a reason message. This option only takes effect if --close-status-code option is
            provided as well.
        --close-status-code <close_status_code>                      Close connection with a status code.
        --crypto-key <crypto_key>
            [A] Specify encryption/decryption key for `crypto:` specifier. Requires `base64:`, `file:` or `pwd:` prefix.

    -H, --header <custom_headers>...
            Add custom HTTP header to websocket client request. Separate header name and value with a colon and
            optionally a single space. Can be used multiple times. Note that single -H may eat multiple further
            arguments, leading to confusing errors. Specify headers at the end or with equal sign like -H='X: y'.
        --server-header <custom_reply_headers>...
            Add custom HTTP header to websocket upgrade reply. Separate header name and value with a colon and
            optionally a single space. Can be used multiple times. Note that single -H may eat multiple further
            arguments, leading to confusing errors.
        --exec-args <exec_args>...
            [A] Arguments for the `exec:` specifier. Must be the last option, everything after it gets into the exec
            args list.
        --header-to-env <headers_to_env>...
            Forward specified incoming request header to H_* environment variable for `exec:`-like specifiers.

    -h, --help <help>
            See the help.
            --help=short is the list of easy options and address types
            --help=long lists all options and types (see [A] markers)
            --help=doc also shows longer description and examples.
        --inhibit-pongs <inhibit_pongs>
            [A] Stop replying to incoming WebSocket pings after specified number of replies

        --just-generate-accept <just_generate_accept>
            [A] Just a Sec-WebSocket-Accept value based on supplied Sec-WebSocket-Key value without running main
            Websocat
        --max-messages <max_messages>
            Maximum number of messages to copy in one direction.

        --max-messages-rev <max_messages_rev>
            Maximum number of messages to copy in the other direction.

        --conncap <max_parallel_conns>
            Maximum number of simultaneous connections for listening mode

        --max-sent-pings <max_sent_pings>
            [A] Stop sending pings after this number of sent pings

        --max-ws-frame-length <max_ws_frame_length>
            [A] Maximum size of incoming WebSocket frames, to prevent memory overflow [default: 104857600]

        --max-ws-message-length <max_ws_message_length>
            [A] Maximum size of incoming WebSocket messages (sans of one data frame), to prevent memory overflow
            [default: 209715200]
        --origin <origin>                                            Add Origin HTTP header to websocket client request
        --pkcs12-der <pkcs12_der>
            Pkcs12 archive needed to accept SSL connections, certificate and key.
            A command to output it: openssl pkcs12 -export -out output.pkcs12 -inkey key.pem -in cert.pem
            Use with -s (--server-mode) option or with manually specified TLS overlays.
            See moreexamples.md for more info.
        --pkcs12-passwd <pkcs12_passwd>
            Password for --pkcs12-der pkcs12 archive. Required on Mac.

    -p, --preamble <preamble>...
            Prepend copied data with a specified string. Can be specified multiple times.

    -P, --preamble-reverse <preamble_reverse>...
            Prepend copied data with a specified string (reverse direction). Can be specified multiple times.

        --prometheus <prometheus>
            Expose Prometheus metrics on specified IP address and port in addition to running usual Websocat session

        --request-header <request_headers>...
            [A] Specify HTTP request headers for `http-request:` specifier.

    -X, --request-method <request_method>                            [A] Method to use for `http-request:` specifier
        --request-uri <request_uri>                                  [A] URI to use for `http-request:` specifier
        --restrict-uri <restrict_uri>
            When serving a websocket, only accept the given URI, like `/ws`
            This liberates other URIs for things like serving static files or proxying.
    -F, --static-file <serve_static_files>...
            Serve a named static file for non-websocket connections.
            Argument syntax: <URI>:<Content-Type>:<file-path>
            Argument example: /index.html:text/html:index.html
            Directories are not and will not be supported for security reasons.
            Can be specified multiple times. Recommended to specify them at the end or with equal sign like `-F=...`,
            otherwise this option may eat positional arguments
        --socks5-bind-script <socks5_bind_script>
            [A] Execute specified script in `socks5-bind:` mode when remote port number becomes known.

        --socks5-destination <socks_destination>
            [A] Examples: 1.2.3.4:5678  2600:::80  hostname:5678

        --tls-domain <tls_domain>
            [A] Specify domain for SNI or certificate verification when using tls-connect: overlay

        --udp-multicast <udp_join_multicast_addr>...
            [A] Issue IP[V6]_ADD_MEMBERSHIP for specified multicast address. Can be specified multiple times.

        --udp-multicast-iface-v4 <udp_join_multicast_iface_v4>...
            [A] IPv4 address of multicast network interface. Has to be either not specified or specified the same number
            of times as multicast IPv4 addresses. Order matters.
        --udp-multicast-iface-v6 <udp_join_multicast_iface_v6>...
            [A] Index of network interface for IPv6 multicast. Has to be either not specified or specified the same
            number of times as multicast IPv6 addresses. Order matters.
        --udp-ttl <udp_ttl>                                          [A] Set IP_TTL, also IP_MULTICAST_TTL if applicable
        --protocol <websocket_protocol>
            Specify this Sec-WebSocket-Protocol: header when connecting

        --server-protocol <websocket_reply_protocol>
            Force this Sec-WebSocket-Protocol: header when accepting a connection

        --websocket-version <websocket_version>                      Override the Sec-WebSocket-Version value
        --binary-prefix <ws_binary_prefix>
            [A] Prepend specified text to each received WebSocket binary message. Also strip this prefix from outgoing
            messages, explicitly marking them as binary even if `--text` is specified
        --ws-c-uri <ws_c_uri>
            [A] URI to use for ws-c: overlay [default: ws://0.0.0.0/]

        --ping-interval <ws_ping_interval>                           Send WebSocket pings each this number of seconds
        --ping-timeout <ws_ping_timeout>
            Drop WebSocket connection if Pong message not received for this number of seconds

        --text-prefix <ws_text_prefix>
            [A] Prepend specified text to each received WebSocket text message. Also strip this prefix from outgoing
            messages, explicitly marking them as text even if `--binary` is specified

ARGS:
    <addr1>    In simple mode, WebSocket URL to connect. In advanced mode first address (there are many kinds of
               addresses) to use. See --help=types for info about address types. If this is an address for
               listening, it will try serving multiple connections.
    <addr2>    In advanced mode, second address to connect. If this is an address for listening, it will accept only
               one connection.


Basic examples:
  Command-line websocket client:
    websocat ws://ws.vi-server.org/mirror/
    
  WebSocket server
    websocat -s 8080
    
  WebSocket-to-TCP proxy:
    websocat --binary ws-l:127.0.0.1:8080 tcp:127.0.0.1:5678
    

Full list of address types:
	ws://           	Insecure (ws://) WebSocket client. Argument is host and URL.
	wss://          	Secure (wss://) WebSocket client. Argument is host and URL.
	ws-listen:      	WebSocket server. Argument is host and port to listen.
	inetd-ws:       	WebSocket inetd server. [A]
	l-ws-unix:      	WebSocket UNIX socket-based server. [A]
	l-ws-abstract:  	WebSocket abstract-namespaced UNIX socket server. [A]
	ws-lowlevel-client:	[A] Low-level HTTP-independent WebSocket client connection without associated HTTP upgrade.
	ws-lowlevel-server:	[A] Low-level HTTP-independent WebSocket server connection without associated HTTP upgrade.
	wss-listen:     	Listen for secure WebSocket connections on a TCP port
	http:           	[A] Issue HTTP request, receive a 1xx or 2xx reply, then pass
	asyncstdio:     	[A] Set stdin and stdout to nonblocking mode, then use it as a communication counterpart. UNIX-only.
	inetd:          	Like `asyncstdio:`, but intended for inetd(8) usage. [A]
	tcp:            	Connect to specified TCP host and port. Argument is a socket address.
	tcp-listen:     	Listen TCP port on specified address.
	ssl-listen:     	Listen for SSL connections on a TCP port
	sh-c:           	Start specified command line using `sh -c` (even on Windows)
	cmd:            	Start specified command line using `sh -c` or `cmd /C` (depending on platform)
	exec:           	Execute a program directly (without a subshell), providing array of arguments on Unix [A]
	readfile:       	Synchronously read a file. Argument is a file path.
	writefile:      	Synchronously truncate and write a file.
	appendfile:     	Synchronously append a file.
	udp:            	Send and receive packets to specified UDP socket, from random UDP port  
	udp-listen:     	Bind an UDP socket to specified host:port, receive packet
	open-async:     	Open file for read and write and use it like a socket. [A]
	open-fd:        	Use specified file descriptor like a socket. [A]
	threadedstdio:  	[A] Stdin/stdout, spawning a thread (threaded version).
	-               	Read input from console, print to console. Uses threaded implementation even on UNIX unless requested by `--async-stdio` CLI option.
	unix:           	Connect to UNIX socket. Argument is filesystem path. [A]
	unix-listen:    	Listen for connections on a specified UNIX socket [A]
	unix-dgram:     	Send packets to one path, receive from the other. [A]
	abstract:       	Connect to UNIX abstract-namespaced socket. Argument is some string used as address. [A]
	abstract-listen:	Listen for connections on a specified abstract UNIX socket [A]
	abstract-dgram: 	Send packets to one address, receive from the other. [A]
	mirror:         	Simply copy output to input. No arguments needed.
	literalreply:   	Reply with a specified string for each input packet.
	clogged:        	Do nothing. Don't read or write any bytes. Keep connections in "hung" state. [A]
	literal:        	Output a string, discard input.
	assert:         	Check the input.  [A]
	assert2:        	Check the input. [A]
	seqpacket:      	Connect to AF_UNIX SOCK_SEQPACKET socket. Argument is a filesystem path. [A]
	seqpacket-listen:	Listen for connections on a specified AF_UNIX SOCK_SEQPACKET socket [A]
	random:         	Generate random bytes when being read from, discard written bytes.
Full list of overlays:
	ws-upgrade:     	WebSocket upgrader / raw server. Specify your own protocol instead of usual TCP. [A]
	http-request:   	[A] Issue HTTP request, receive a 1xx or 2xx reply, then pass
	http-post-sse:  	[A] Accept HTTP/1 request. Then, if it is GET,
	ssl-connect:    	Overlay to add TLS encryption atop of existing connection [A]
	ssl-accept:     	Accept an TLS connection using arbitrary backing stream. [A]
	reuse-raw:      	Reuse subspecifier for serving multiple clients: unpredictable mode. [A]
	broadcast:      	Reuse this connection for serving multiple clients, sending replies to all clients.
	autoreconnect:  	Re-establish underlying connection on any error or EOF
	ws-c:           	Low-level WebSocket connector. Argument is a some another address. [A]
	msg2line:       	Line filter: Turns messages from packet stream into lines of byte stream. [A]
	line2msg:       	Line filter: turn lines from byte stream into messages as delimited by '\\n' or '\\0' [A]
	foreachmsg:     	Execute something for each incoming message.
	log:            	Log each buffer as it pass though the underlying connector.
	jsonrpc:        	[A] Turns messages like `abc 1,2` into `{"jsonrpc":"2.0","id":412, "method":"abc", "params":[1,2]}`.
	timestamp:      	[A] Prepend timestamp to each incoming message.
	socks5-connect: 	SOCKS5 proxy client (raw) [A]
	socks5-bind:    	SOCKS5 proxy client (raw, bind command) [A]
	crypto:         	[A] Encrypts written messages and decrypts (and verifies) read messages with a static key, using ChaCha20-Poly1305 algorithm.
	prometheus:     	[A] Account connections, messages, bytes and other data and expose Prometheus metrics on a separate port.
	exit_on_specific_byte:	[A] Turn specific byte into a EOF, allowing user to escape interactive Websocat session

Some notes

  • IPv6 is supported, surround your IP in square brackets or use it as is, depending on context.
  • Web socket usage is not obligatory, you can use any specs on both sides.
  • Typically one line in binary stream correspond to one WebSocket text message. This is adjustable with options.

Limitations

  • It is not convenient when text and binary WebSocket messages are mixed. This affects mirror: specifier, making it a bit different from ws://echo.websocket.org. There are --binary-prefix, --text-prefix and --base64 options to handle mixture of binary and text.
  • Current version of Websocat don't receive notification about closed sockets. This makes serving without -E or -u options or in backpressure scenarios prone to socket leak.
  • Readline is not integrated. Users are advices to wrap websocat using rlwrap tool for more convenient CLI.
  • Build process of current version of Websocat is not properly automated and is fragile.
  • ws://localhost may fail if service is not listening both IPv4 and IPv6 properly. There is a workaround based on ws-c:tcp: if needed. Or just use ws://127.0.0.1.

See also

Dependencies

~16–30MB
~496K SLoC