8 releases

1.0.0-beta.5 Mar 12, 2024
1.0.0-beta.4 Oct 27, 2022
1.0.0-beta.2 Mar 17, 2022
1.0.0-beta Sep 26, 2021
0.0.4 Sep 26, 2021

#248 in Development tools

30 downloads per month

MIT OR Apache-2.0 OR Zlib

1.5K SLoC

Fetch auxiliary test data when testing published crates.

What this library is

This library addresses the problem that integration test suites and documentation tests can not be ran from the published .crate archive alone, if they depend on auxiliary data files that should not be shipped to downstream packages and end users.

For this task it augments Cargo.toml with additional fields that describe how an artifact archive composed from VCS files that are associated with the exact version at which they were created. The packed data and exact version is then referenced when executing test from the .crate archive. A small runtime component unpacks the data and rewrites file paths to a substitute file tree.

How to test crates

This repository contains a reference implementation for interpreting the auxiliary metadata. It's simple to test crates depending on this library:

# test for developers
cargo run --bin xtask --features bin-xtask -- test <path-to-repo>
# test for packager
cargo run --bin xtask --features bin-xtask -- crate-test <crate>
# prepare a test but delay its execution
eval `cargo run --bin xtask --features bin-xtask -- fetch-artifacts <crate>`

For an offline use, where archives are handled by yourself:

# Prepare .crate and .xtest-data archives:
cargo run --bin xtask --features bin-xtask -- package
# on stdout, e.g.: ./target/xtest-data/xtest-data-1.0.0-beta.3.xtest-data

# < -- Any method to upload/download/exchange archives -- >

# After downloading both files again:
eval `cargo run --bin xtask --features bin-xtask -- \
  fetch-artifacts xtest-data-1.0.0-beta.3.crate \
  --pack-artifact xtest-data-1.0.0-beta.3.xtest-data`
# Now proceed with regular testing

How to apply

Integrate this package as a dev-dependency into your tests.

let mut path = PathBuf::from("tests/data.zip");
    .rewrite([&mut path])
// 'Magically' changed.
assert!(path.exists(), "{}", path.display());

Note the calls above are typed as infallible but they are not total—they will panic when something is missing since this indicates absent data. The reasoning is that this indicates a faulty setup, not something the test should handle. The expectation of the library is that you access all data through this library instead of as a direct path.


As a developer of a library, you will write some integration with the goal of ensuring correct functionality of your code. Typically, these will be executed in a CI pipeline before release. However, what if someone else—e.g. an Open Source OS distribution—wants to repackage your code? In some cases they might need to perform simple, small modifications: rewrite dependencies, apply compilation options like hardening flags, etc. After those modifications it's unclear if the end product still conforms to its own expectations. Thus will want to run the integration test suite again. That's where the library comes in. It should ensure that:

  • It is unobtrusive in that it does not require modification to the code that is used when included as a dependency.
  • Tests should be reproducible from the packaged .crate, and an author can check this property locally and during pre-release checks.
  • Auxiliary data files required for tests are referenced unambiguously.
  • It does not make unmodifiable assumptions about the source of test data.

How to use offline

First, export the self-contained object-pack collection with your test runs.

CARGO_XTEST_DATA_PACK_OBJECTS="$(pwd)/target/xtest-data" cargo test
zip xtest-data.zip -r target/xtest-data

This allows utilizing the library component to provide a compelling experience for testing distributed packages with the test data as a separate archive. You can of course pack target/xtest-data in any other shape or form you prefer. When testing a crate archive reverse these steps:

unzip xtest-data.zip
CARGO_XTEST_DATA_PACK_OBJECTS="$(pwd)/target/xtest-data" cargo test


Usage for crate authors

For the basic usage, see the above section How to apply. For more advanced API usage consult the documentation. The complete interface is not much more complex than the simple version above.

There is one additional detail if you want to check that your crate successfully passes the tests on a crate distribution. For this you can repurpose the xtask of this crate as a binary:

cd path/to/xtest-data
cargo run --bin xtask --features bin-xtask -- \
  --path to/your/crate test

Hint: if you add the source repository of xtest-data as a submodule and modify your workspace to include the xtask folder then you can always execute the xtask from your own crate.

The xtask will:

  1. Run cargo package to create the .crate archive and accompanying pack directory. Note that this requires the sources selected for the crate to be unmodified.
  2. Stop, if test is not selected. Otherwise, decompress and unpack this archive into a temporary directory.
  3. Compile the package with xtest-data overrides for local development (see next section). In particular: CARGO_XTEST_DATA_PACK_OBJECTS will point to the pack output directory; CARGO_XTEST_DATA_TMPDIR will be set to a temporary directory create within the target directory; CARGO_TARGET_DIR will also point to the target directory.

This keeps the rustc cached data around while otherwise simulating a fresh distribution compilation.

Customization points for packagers

In all settings, the xtest_data will inspect the following:

  • The Cargo.toml file located in the CARGO_MANIFEST_DIR will be read, decoded and must at least contain the keys package.name, package.version, package.repository.

In a non-source setting (i.e. when running from a downloaded crate) the xtest_data package will read the following environment variables:

  • CARGO_XTEST_DATA_TMPDIR (fallback: TMPDIR) is required to be set when any of the tests are NOT integration tests. Simply put, the setup creates some auxiliary data files but it can not guarantee cleaning them up. This makes an explicit effort to communicate this to the environment. Feel free to contest this reasoning if you feel your use-case were better addressed with an implicit, leaking temporary directory.
  • CARGO_XTEST_DATA_PACK_OBJECTS: A directory for git pack objects (see man git pack-objects). Pack files are written to this directory when running tests from source, and read from this directory when running tests from a .crate archive. These are the same objects that would be fetched when doing a shallow and sparse clone from the source repository.
  • CARGO_XTEST_VCS_INFO: Path to a file with version control information as json, equivalent in structure to cargo's generated VCS information. This will force xtest into VCS mode, where resources are replaced with data from the pack object(s). Can be used to either force crates to supply internal vcs information or to supplement such information. For example, packages generated with cargo package --allow-dirty will not include such a file, and this can be used to override with a forced selection.

How it works

When cargo packages a .crate, it will include a file called .cargo_vcs_info.json which contains basic version information, i.e. the commit ID that was used as the basis of creation of the archive. When the methods of this crate run, they detect the presence or absence of this file to determine if data can be fetched (we also detect the repository information from Cargo.toml).

If we seem to be running outside the development repository, then by default we won't do anything but validate the information, debug print what we plan to fetch—and then instantly panic. However, if the environment variable CARGO_XTEST_DATA_FETCH is set to yes, true or 1 then we will try to download and checkout requested files to the relative location.

Fulfillment of goals

  • The package is a pure dev-dependency and there is focus on introducing a small amount of dependencies. (Any patches to minimize this further are welcome. We might add a toggle to disable locks and its dependencies if non-parallel test execution is good enough?)
  • A full offline mode with minimal auxiliary source archives is provided. Building the crate without executing tests does not require any test data.
  • The xtask tool can be used for local development and CI (we use it in our own pipeline for example). It's not strongly linked to the implementation, just the public interface, so it is possible to replace it with your own logic.
  • Auxiliary files are referenced by the commit object ID of the distributed crate, which implies a particular tree-ish from which they are retrieved. This is equivalent to descending a Merkle tree which lends itself to efficient signatures etc.
  • It is possible to overwrite the source repository as long as it provides a git compatible server. For example, you might pre-clone the source commit and provide the data via a local file:// repository.

Known problems

When fetching data, git may repeatedly ask for credentials and is pretty slow. This issue should not occur when git supports sparse-checkout. This is because we are shelling out to Git and git checkout, which we utilize to very selectively unshallow the commit at the exact path specs which we require, does not keep the connection alive—even when you give it multiple pathspecs at the same time through --pathspecs-from-file=-. With sparse-checkout, however, we only call this once which lowers the number of connection attempts. A workaround is to setup a local agent and purge that afterwards or to create a short-lived token instead.

Ideas for future work

As a cargo xtask. However, the idea of an xtask is that the exact setup is not uploaded with the main package and just a local dev-tool. Still, we could help with the test setup.

Add this as a git submodule (or subtree). This should allow you to configure a dependency on data files in a separate repository and not tracked by git itself. This package does not mind where you add it as long as you configure it to be in your workspace. Then setup a command alias to this package.


~136K SLoC