#types #proofs #math #logic #metaprogramming

macro no-std rsmonad-macros

Haskell-style monads for idiomatic Rust

3 releases

0.1.2 May 19, 2023
0.1.1 May 19, 2023
0.1.0 May 18, 2023

#12 in #proofs


894 lines

Monads, Functors, & More to Come in Rust

Haskell-style monads with Rust syntax.


Rust requires >>= to be self-modifying, so we use >> instead of >>= and consume instead of return (keyword). For functors, you can use fmap(f, x) or x.fmap(f), or you can pipe it: x | f | g | .... At the moment, Haskell's monadic >> seems unnecessary in an eager language like Rust, but I could easily be overlooking something!


Just write a monad! { ... and you get all its superclasses like Functor for free, plus common derives like Debug, Clone, Eq, Ord, Hash, etc., and enums have all their members pub used:

use rsmonad::prelude::*;

monad! {
    enum Maybe<A> {

    fn bind(self, f) {
        match self {
            Just(a) => f(a),
            Nothing => Nothing,

    fn consume(a) {

// And these just work:

// Monad
assert_eq(Just(4) >> |x| u8::checked_add(x, 1).into(), Just(5));
assert_eq(Nothing >> |x| u8::checked_add(x, 1).into(), Nothing);
assert_eq(Just(255) >> |x| u8::checked_add(x, 1).into(), Nothing);

// Functor
assert_eq!(Just(4) | u8::is_power_of_two, Just(true));
assert_eq!(Nothing | u8::is_power_of_two, Nothing);


Catch panics without worrying about the details:

fn afraid_of_circles(x: u8) -> BlastDoor<()> {
    if x == 0 { panic!("aaaaaa!"); }
    Phew(42) >> afraid_of_circles,
    Phew(0) >> afraid_of_circles,

The logic of Haskell lists with the speed of Rust vectors:

// from the wonderful Haskell docs: https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Haskell/Understanding_monads/List
fn bunny(s: &str) -> List<&str> {
    List(vec![s, s, s])
    List::consume("bunny") >> bunny,
    List(vec!["bunny", "bunny", "bunny"]),
    List::consume("bunny") >> bunny >> bunny,
    List(vec!["bunny", "bunny", "bunny", "bunny", "bunny", "bunny", "bunny", "bunny", "bunny"]),

And even the notoriously tricky join-in-terms-of-bind with no type annotations necessary:

let li = List::consume(List::consume(0_u8)); // List<List<u8>>
let joined = li.join();                      // -->  List<u8>!
assert_eq!(joined, List::consume(0_u8));

Plus, we automatically derive QuickCheck::Arbitrary and property-test the monad and functor laws. Just run cargo test and they'll run alongside all your other tests.

Sharp edges

Right now, you can use >> as sugar for bind only when you have a concrete instance of Monad like Maybe but not a general <M: Monad<A>>. The latter still works but requires an explicit call to m.bind(f) (or, if you don't use the trait, Monad::<A>::bind(m, f)). This should be fixed with the Rust's non-lifetime binder feature when it rolls out.


Disable default features:

# Cargo.toml

rsmonad = { version = "*", default-features = false }


~19K SLoC