38 releases (6 breaking)

0.24.216270-beta Jun 17, 2022
0.24.208023-beta Apr 28, 2022
0.24.201994-beta Mar 30, 2022
0.21.2112180703 Dec 14, 2021
0.18.2106148911 Jun 25, 2021

#9 in Simulation

MIT license

115KB
2K SLoC

Quantum Development Kit Preview Simulators

📝 NOTE

This crate is in preview, and may undergo breaking API changes with no notice.

As a preview feature, this crate may be buggy or incomplete. Please check the tracking issue at microsoft/qsharp-runtime#714 for more information.

TIP

This crate provides low-level APIs for interacting with experimental simulators. If you're interested in using the experimental simulators to run your Q# programs, please see the installation instructions at https://github.com/microsoft/qsharp-runtime/blob/main/documentation/preview-simulators.md.

This crate implements simulation functionality for the Quantum Development Kit, including:

  • Open systems simulation
  • Stabilizer simulation

The c_api module allows for using the simulation functionality in this crate from C, or from other languages with a C FFI (e.g.: C++ or C#), while Rust callers can take advantage of the structs and methods in this crate directly.

Similarly, the python module allows exposing data structures in this crate to Python programs.

Cargo Features

  • python: Enables Python bindings for this crate.
  • wasm: Ensures that the crate is compatible with usage from WebAssembly.

Representing quantum systems

This crate provides several different data structures for representing quantum systems in a variety of different conventions:

  • State: Represents stabilizer, pure, or mixed states of a register of qubits.
  • Process: Represents processes that map states to states.
  • Instrument: Represents quantum instruments, the most general form of measurement.

Noise model serialization

Noise models can be serialized to JSON for interoperability across languages. In particular, each noise model is represented by a JSON object with properties for each operation, for the initial state, and for the instrument used to implement $Z$-basis measurement.

For example:

{
    "initial_state": {
        "n_qubits": 1,
        "data": {
            "Mixed": {
                "v": 1, "dim":[2 ,2],
                "data": [[1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0]]
            }
        }
    },
    "i": {
        "n_qubits": 1,
        "data": {
            "Unitary": {
                "v": 1,"dim": [2, 2],
                "data": [[1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0], [1.0, 0.0]]
            }
        }
    },
    ...
    "z_meas": {
        "Effects": [
            {
                "n_qubits": 1,
                "data": {
                    "KrausDecomposition": {
                        "v":1, "dim": [1, 2, 2],
                        "data": [[1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0]]
                    }
                }
            },
            {
                "n_qubits": 1,
                "data": {
                    "KrausDecomposition": {
                        "v": 1,"dim": [1, 2, 2],
                        "data":[[0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0], [1.0, 0.0]]
                    }
                }
            }
        ]
    }
}

The value of the initial_state property is a serialized State, the value of each operation property (i.e.: i, x, y, z, h, s, s_adj, t, t_adj, and cnot) is a serialized Process, and the value of z_meas is a serialized Instrument.

Representing arrays of complex numbers

Throughout noise model serialization, JSON objects representing $n$-dimensional arrays of complex numbers are used to store various vectors, matrices, and tensors. Such arrays are serialized as JSON objects with three properties:

  • v: The version number of the JSON schema; must be "1".
  • dims: A list of the dimensions of the array being represented.
  • data: A list of the elements of the flattened array, each of which is represented as a list with two entries representing the real and complex parts of each element.

For example, consider the serialization of the ideal y operation:

"y": {
    "n_qubits": 1,
    "data": {
        "Unitary": {
            "v": 1, "dim": [2, 2],
            "data": [[0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0], [0.0, -1.0], [0.0, 0.0]]
        }
    }
}

Representing states and processes

Each state and process is represented in JSON by an object with two properties, n_qubits and data. The value of data is itself a JSON object with one property indicating which variant of the StateData or ProcessData enum is used to represent that state or process, respectively.

For example, the following JSON object represents the mixed state $\ket{0}\bra{0}$:

{
    "n_qubits": 1,
    "data": {
        "Mixed": {
            "v": 1, "dim":[2 ,2],
            "data": [[1.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 0.0]]
        }
    }
}

Representing instruments

TODO

Known issues

  • Performance of open systems simulation still needs additional work for larger registers.
  • Some gaps in different conversion functions and methods.
  • Stabilizer states cannot yet be measured through Instrument struct, only through underlying Tableau.
  • Many parts of the crate do not yet have Python bindings.
  • Stabilizer simulation not yet exposed via C API.
  • Test and microbenchmark coverage still incomplete.
  • Too many APIs panic! or unwrap, and need replaced with Result returns instead.

Dependencies

~5.5–9.5MB
~212K SLoC