28 releases (6 breaking)

✓ Uses Rust 2018 edition

0.7.0-alpha.1 Apr 23, 2019
0.6.0 Mar 28, 2019
0.6.0-alpha.4 Feb 20, 2019
0.5.2 Nov 25, 2018
0.1.0 Jul 23, 2017

#4 in FFI

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Used in 17 crates

Apache-2.0

697KB
17K SLoC

PyO3

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Rust bindings for Python. This includes running and interacting with python code from a rust binaries as well as writing native python modules.

A comparison with rust-cpython can be found in the guide.

Usage

PyO3 supports Python 3.5 and up. The minimum required rust version is 1.34.0-nightly 2019-02-06.

PyPy is also supported (via cpyext) for Python 3.5 only, targeted PyPy version is 7.0.0. Please refer to the guide for installation instruction against PyPy.

You can either write a native Python module in rust or use Python from a Rust binary.

However, on some OSs, you need some additional packages. E.g. if you are on Ubuntu 18.04, please run

sudo apt install python3-dev python-dev

Using Rust from Python

PyO3 can be used to generate a native python module.

Cargo.toml

[package]
name = "string-sum"
version = "0.1.0"
edition = "2018"

[lib]
name = "string_sum"
crate-type = ["cdylib"]

[dependencies.pyo3]
version = "0.7.0-alpha.1"
features = ["extension-module"]

src/lib.rs

// Not required when using Rust 2018
extern crate pyo3;

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::wrap_pyfunction;

#[pyfunction]
/// Formats the sum of two numbers as string
fn sum_as_string(a: usize, b: usize) -> PyResult<String> {
    Ok((a + b).to_string())
}

/// This module is a python module implemented in Rust.
#[pymodule]
fn string_sum(py: Python, m: &PyModule) -> PyResult<()> {
    m.add_wrapped(wrap_pyfunction!(sum_as_string))?;

    Ok(())
}

On Windows and Linux, you can build normally with cargo build --release. On MacOS, you need to set additional linker arguments. One option is to compile with cargo rustc --release -- -C link-arg=-undefined -C link-arg=dynamic_lookup, the other is to create a .cargo/config with the following content:

[target.x86_64-apple-darwin]
rustflags = [
  "-C", "link-arg=-undefined",
  "-C", "link-arg=dynamic_lookup",
]

For developing, you can copy and rename the shared library from the target folder: On MacOS, rename libstring_sum.dylib to string_sum.so, on Windows libstring_sum.dll to string_sum.pyd and on Linux libstring_sum.so to string_sum.so. Then open a Python shell in the same folder and you'll be able to import string_sum.

To build, test and publish your crate as Python module, you can use pyo3-pack or setuptools-rust. You can find an example for setuptools-rust in examples/word-count, while pyo3-pack should work on your crate without any configuration.

Using python from rust

Add pyo3 this to your Cargo.toml:

[dependencies]
pyo3 = "0.7.0-alpha.1"

Example program displaying the value of sys.version:

// Not required when using Rust 2018
extern crate pyo3;

use pyo3::prelude::*;
use pyo3::types::IntoPyDict;

fn main() -> PyResult<()> {
    let gil = Python::acquire_gil();
    let py = gil.python();
    let sys = py.import("sys")?;
    let version: String = sys.get("version")?.extract()?;
    let locals = [("os", py.import("os")?)].into_py_dict(py);
    let code = "os.getenv('USER') or os.getenv('USERNAME') or 'Unknown'";
    let user: String = py.eval(code, None, Some(&locals))?.extract()?;
    println!("Hello {}, I'm Python {}", user, version);
    Ok(())
}

Examples and tooling

License

PyO3 is licensed under the Apache-2.0 license. Python is licensed under the Python License.

Dependencies

~1.5MB
~32K SLoC