#kernel-module #beaglebone #pru #pruss

prusst

A convenient interface to the UIO kernel module for TI Programmable Real-time Units

2 releases (1 stable)

Uses old Rust 2015

1.0.0 Nov 18, 2017
0.1.0 Aug 8, 2016

#272 in Operating systems

MIT/Apache

49KB
697 lines

prusst

Build Status

A convenient Rust interface to the UIO kernel module for TI Programmable Real-time Unit coprocessors found among others on the BeagleBone development boards. It provides roughly the same functionality as the C prussdrv library but with a safer, rustic API that attempts to mitigate risks related to uninitialized or invalid register states, use of freed memory, memory allocations conflicts etc.

Documentation

The API documentation lives here.

Background

PRUs (Programmable Real-time Units) are RISC cores integrated into some TI processors such as the AM335x that powers the BeagleBone::{White, Black, Green} development boards. They are what sets the BeagleBone apart from other popular single-board computers, allowing real-time process control without the complexity associated with an external co-processor.

PRUs have direct access to some general purpose I/O pins as well as indirect access to memory and peripherals via an interconnect bus. Their predictable single-cycle instruction execution and absence of pipe-lining or caching makes them especially suitable for real-time processing.

Since the PRU assembly language is simple and enables total control of the execution timing, critical real-time tasks can be programmed directly in assembly for the PRU, which cooperates with the host processor for the heavy-lifting (pre and post-processing, communication etc.).

There currently exist two options to communicate with the PRU from the host processor, namely the UIO and the remoteproc kernel modules. The UIO kernel module offers a low-level access to the PRU subsystem and is generally better suited for pure assembler PRU code with accurate execution timing based on instruction cycle count. The remoteproc kernel module is in turn better suited for higher-level and somewhat more portable PRU programming in C but less suitable for deterministic, tight real-time control due to the overhead of the message-passing mechanism.

This library provides a relatively simple abstraction over the UIO kernel module which makes it easy to perform common operations such as executing code on the PRU, transferring data between the PRU and the host processor or triggering/waiting for system events.

Design rationale

The design of the library exploits the Rust type system to reduce the risk of shooting onself in the foot. Its architecture is meant to offer improved ergonomics compared to its C relative, while operating at a similarly low level of abstraction and providing equivalent functionality.

Data-race safety is warranted by checking that only one Pruss instance (a view of the PRU subsystem) is running at a time. The magic of the Rust borrowing rules will then statically ensure, inter alia:

  • the absence of memory aliasing for local and shared PRU RAM, meaning that a previously allocated RAM segment may not be re-used before the data it contains is released,

  • the impossibility to request code execution on a PRU core before the code has actually been loaded,

  • the impossibility to overwrite PRU code that is already loaded and still in use,

  • the impossibility to concurrently modify the interrupt mapping.

Type safety also avoids many pitfalls associated with interrupt management. Unlike the C prussdrv library, system events, host interrupt, events out and channels are all distinct types: they cannot be misused or inadvertently switched in function calls. A related benefit is that the interrupt management API is very self-explanatory.

Event handling is one of the few places where prusst requires the user to be more explicit than the C prussdrv library. Indeed, the prussdrv_pru_clear_event function of the C driver automatically re-enables an event out after clearing the triggering system event, which may wrongly suggest that the combined clear-enable operation is thread-safe (it isn't). In contrast, prusst mandates that both Intc::clear_sysevt and Intc::enable_host be called if the event out needs to be caught again. This behavior is probably less surprising and is arguably more consistent with the atomicity of the other interrupt management functions.

System prerequisites

The UIO kernel module must be loaded on your system. Mainline debian "Stretch" distributions from May 2017 onward can be easily configured to access the PRU via either remoteproc or UIO.

The UIO overlay must first be selected by editing /boot/uEnv.txt, e.g.:

...
# uboot_overlay_pru=/lib/firmware/AM335X-PRU-RPROC-4-4-TI-00A0.dtbo
...
uboot_overlay_pru=/lib/firmware/AM335X-PRU-UIO-00A0.dtbo
...

Then, the remoteproc modules must be blacklisted by editing or creating /etc/modprobe.d/pruss-blacklist.conf with the following content:

blacklist pruss
blacklist pruss_intc
blacklist pru_rproc

If all goes well, the UIO kernel modules should show up after reboot:

$ lsmod | grep uio
uio_pruss               4629  0
uio_pdrv_genirq         4243  0
uio                    11100  2 uio_pruss,uio_pdrv_genirq

Installation

Just add the crate to your project's Cargo.toml:

[dependencies]
prusst = "1.0"

prusst 1.0 requires rust 1.21 or above.

If you cannot use rust 1.21, no worry: just use prusst 0.1! I am sure you will be fine.

The API hasn't changed: the version bump is mostly to indicate that the original design has withstood the test of time. Although 1.0 does contain a fix that was waiting for rust 1.21 (support for compiler barriers), the issue is quite hypothetical and unlikely to ever affect you.

Cross-compilation

The native Rust toolchain runs flawlessly on the BeagleBone debian distribution, provided that there is enough spare room. The IoT debian image is a good option.

As can be expected though, compilation is a bit slowish.

Cross-compilation can save you a lot of pain and is surprisingly simple, courtesy of rustup.rs. For a step-by-step procedure to install an ARM v7 target with rustup.rs, see the rust cross-compilation bible.

Hello world

extern crate prusst;

use prusst::{Pruss, IntcConfig, Sysevt, Evtout};
use std::fs::File;

fn main() {
    // Configure and get a view of the PRU subsystem.
    let mut pruss = Pruss::new(&IntcConfig::new_populated()).unwrap();
    
    // Get a handle to an event out before it is triggered.
    let irq = pruss.intc.register_irq(Evtout::E0);

    // Open, load and run a PRU binary.
    let mut file = File::open("hello.bin").unwrap();
    unsafe { pruss.pru0.load_code(&mut file).unwrap().run(); }
    
    // Wait for the PRU code from hello.bin to trigger an event out.
    irq.wait();
    
    // Clear the triggering interrupt.
    pruss.intc.clear_sysevt(Sysevt::S19);

    // Do nothing: the `pruss` destructor will stop any running code and release ressources.
    println!("We are done...");
}

Examples

More advanced usage of the library is demonstrated in the examples, such as PRU RAM allocation, 2-ways communication with PRU, concurrent management of IRQs, etc.

Assuming the prusst crate has been locally cloned, the first step before running the examples is to compile the PRU assembler code. This may be done with either the pasm assembler or the clpru compiler. The former is no longer maintained but can be retrieved as part of the am335x-pru-package.
The best option today, however, is probably to use the clpru compiler which is now bundled in the mainline BeagleBone distribution and actively maintained by TI. Note that the assembler syntax differs slightly so two versions of each PRU example code are provided, one for pasm (.pasm files in the pasm directory) and one for clpru (.asm files in the asm directory).

To build the example PRU binaries with clpru do:

$ cd examples
$ make asm

Likewise, to build the binaries with pasm do:

$ cd examples
$ make pasm

If you use a BeagleBone with cape-universal enabled (which should be the case for relatively new distributions), the PRU is already configured by default. You may then right away blink the USR BeagleBone LEDs with the barebone_blink and barebone_parallel_blink examples (to be run from within the crate root directory, otherwise the PRU binaries will not be found):

$ cargo run --example barebone_blink

The pwm_generator example needs a bit more setup as it uses a PRU-privileged GPIO (pr1_pru0_pru_r30_1, a.k.a. pin P9_29 on the BeagleBone).

On the BeagleBone Black and other HDMI-equipped boards, all PRU-privileged pins are by default reserved for HDMI so it is necessary to first disable HDMI in /boot/uEnv.txt by uncommenting the following line (note that this actually disables both HDMI video and audio):

disable_uboot_overlay_video=1

After re-boot, pin P9_29 can be configured as a PRU out pin with:

$ config-pin P9.29 pruout

and the PWM example is ready to be fired:

$ cargo run --example pwm_generator

This will generate an 8-bit PWM sine wave with a configurable frequency and amplitude, using a constant 78431Hz PWM switching frequency.

If you do not have a BeagleBone and/or a PRU-enabling overlay, you may install the prusst-examples overlay provided in the examples directory. This overlay enables the PRU subsystem and BeagleBone pin P9_29 as a PRU out pin.

The overlay is compiled and installed as follows:

$ dtc -O dtb -o examples/prusst-examples-00A0.dtbo -b 0 -@ examples/prusst-examples.dts
$ sudo cp examples/prusst-examples-00A0.dtbo /lib/firmware

To activate it, edit /boot/uEnv.txt.

IMPORTANT: if you use the the prusst-examples overlay, note that it is incompatible with HDMI on the BeagleBone Black and other HDMI-equipped boards. To avoid any problem, no HDMI-enabling cape should be loaded at boot time.

License

This software is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 or the MIT license, at your option.

Copyright (c) 2017 Serge Barral.

This library is named after French novelist Marcel Prusst (1871-1922). Well, almost.

Dependencies