#concurrent #cache

moka

A fast and concurrent cache library inspired by Caffeine (Java) and Ristretto (Go)

7 releases

0.3.0 Mar 2, 2021
0.2.0 Feb 12, 2021
0.1.0 Feb 6, 2021
0.1.0-beta.1 Jan 31, 2021
0.1.0-alpha.1 Oct 22, 2020

#37 in Concurrency

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81 downloads per month
Used in 7 crates (via libunftp)

MIT/Apache

205KB
4K SLoC

Moka

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Moka is a fast, concurrent cache library for Rust. Moka is inspired by Caffeine (Java) and Ristretto (Go).

Moka provides cache implementations that support full concurrency of retrievals and a high expected concurrency for updates. Moka also provides a not thread-safe cache implementation for single thread applications.

All caches perform a best-effort bounding of a hash map using an entry replacement algorithm to determine which entries to evict when the capacity is exceeded.

Features

  • Thread-safe, highly concurrent in-memory cache implementations:
    • Blocking caches that can be shared across OS threads.
    • An asynchronous (futures aware) cache that can be accessed inside and outside of asynchronous contexts.
  • A not thread-safe, in-memory cache implementation for single thread applications.
  • Caches are bounded by the maximum number of entries.
  • Maintains good hit rate by using an entry replacement algorithms inspired by Caffeine:
    • Admission to a cache is controlled by the Least Frequently Used (LFU) policy.
    • Eviction from a cache is controlled by the Least Recently Used (LRU) policy.
  • Supports expiration policies:
    • Time to live
    • Time to idle

Usage

Add this to your Cargo.toml:

[dependencies]
moka = "0.3"

To use the asynchronous cache, enable a crate feature called "future".

[dependencies]
moka = { version = "0.3", features = ["future"] }

Example: Synchronous Cache

The thread-safe, blocking caches are defined in the sync module.

Cache entries are manually added using insert method, and are stored in the cache until either evicted or manually invalidated.

Here's an example of reading and updating a cache by using multiple threads:

// Use the synchronous cache.
use moka::sync::Cache;

use std::thread;

fn value(n: usize) -> String {
    format!("value {}", n)
}

fn main() {
    const NUM_THREADS: usize = 16;
    const NUM_KEYS_PER_THREAD: usize = 64;

    // Create a cache that can store up to 10,000 entries.
    let cache = Cache::new(10_000);

    // Spawn threads and read and update the cache simultaneously.
    let threads: Vec<_> = (0..NUM_THREADS)
        .map(|i| {
            // To share the same cache across the threads, clone it.
            // This is a cheap operation.
            let my_cache = cache.clone();
            let start = i * NUM_KEYS_PER_THREAD;
            let end = (i + 1) * NUM_KEYS_PER_THREAD;

            thread::spawn(move || {
                // Insert 64 entries. (NUM_KEYS_PER_THREAD = 64)
                for key in start..end {
                    my_cache.insert(key, value(key));
                    // get() returns Option<String>, a clone of the stored value.
                    assert_eq!(my_cache.get(&key), Some(value(key)));
                }

                // Invalidate every 4 element of the inserted entries.
                for key in (start..end).step_by(4) {
                    my_cache.invalidate(&key);
                }
            })
        })
        .collect();

    // Wait for all threads to complete.
    threads.into_iter().for_each(|t| t.join().expect("Failed"));

    // Verify the result.
    for key in 0..(NUM_THREADS * NUM_KEYS_PER_THREAD) {
        if key % 4 == 0 {
            assert_eq!(cache.get(&key), None);
        } else {
            assert_eq!(cache.get(&key), Some(value(key)));
        }
    }
}

Example: Asynchronous Cache

The asynchronous (futures aware) cache is defined in the future module. It works with asynchronous runtime such as Tokio, async-std or actix-rt. To use the asynchronous cache, enable a crate feature called "future".

Cache entries are manually added using an insert method, and are stored in the cache until either evicted or manually invalidated:

  • Inside an async context (async fn or async block), use insert or invalidate method for updating the cache and await them.
  • Outside any async context, use blocking_insert or blocking_invalidate methods. They will block for a short time under heavy updates.

Here is a similar program to the previous example, but using asynchronous cache with Tokio runtime:

// Cargo.toml
//
// [dependencies]
// moka = { version = "0.3", features = ["future"] }
// tokio = { version = "1", features = ["rt-multi-thread", "macros" ] }
// futures = "0.3"

// Use the asynchronous cache.
use moka::future::Cache;

#[tokio::main]
async fn main() {
    const NUM_TASKS: usize = 16;
    const NUM_KEYS_PER_TASK: usize = 64;

    fn value(n: usize) -> String {
        format!("value {}", n)
    }

    // Create a cache that can store up to 10,000 entries.
    let cache = Cache::new(10_000);

    // Spawn async tasks and write to and read from the cache.
    let tasks: Vec<_> = (0..NUM_TASKS)
        .map(|i| {
            // To share the same cache across the async tasks, clone it.
            // This is a cheap operation.
            let my_cache = cache.clone();
            let start = i * NUM_KEYS_PER_TASK;
            let end = (i + 1) * NUM_KEYS_PER_TASK;

            tokio::spawn(async move {
                // Insert 64 entries. (NUM_KEYS_PER_TASK = 64)
                for key in start..end {
                    // insert() is an async method, so await it.
                    my_cache.insert(key, value(key)).await;
                    // get() returns Option<String>, a clone of the stored value.
                    assert_eq!(my_cache.get(&key), Some(value(key)));
                }

                // Invalidate every 4 element of the inserted entries.
                for key in (start..end).step_by(4) {
                    // invalidate() is an async method, so await it.
                    my_cache.invalidate(&key).await;
                }
            })
        })
        .collect();

    // Wait for all tasks to complete.
    futures::future::join_all(tasks).await;

    // Verify the result.
    for key in 0..(NUM_TASKS * NUM_KEYS_PER_TASK) {
        if key % 4 == 0 {
            assert_eq!(cache.get(&key), None);
        } else {
            assert_eq!(cache.get(&key), Some(value(key)));
        }
    }
}

Avoiding to clone the value at get

For the concurrent caches (sync and future caches), the return type of get method is Option<V> instead of Option<&V>, where V is the value type. Every time get is called for an existing key, it creates a clone of the stored value V and returns it. This is because the Cache allows concurrent updates from threads so a value stored in the cache can be dropped or replaced at any time by any other thread. get cannot return a reference &V as it is impossible to guarantee the value outlives the reference.

If you want to store values that will be expensive to clone, wrap them by std::sync::Arc before storing in a cache. Arc is a thread-safe reference-counted pointer and its clone() method is cheap.

use std::sync::Arc;

let key = ...
let large_value = vec![0u8; 2 * 1024 * 1024]; // 2 MiB

// When insert, wrap the large_value by Arc.
cache.insert(key.clone(), Arc::new(large_value));

// get() will call Arc::clone() on the stored value, which is cheap.
cache.get(&key);

Example: Expiration Policies

Moka supports the following expiration policies:

  • Time to live: A cached entry will be expired after the specified duration past from insert.
  • Time to idle: A cached entry will be expired after the specified duration past from get or insert.

To set them, use the CacheBuilder.

use moka::sync::CacheBuilder;

use std::time::Duration;

fn main() {
    let cache = CacheBuilder::new(10_000) // Max 10,000 elements
        // Time to live (TTL): 30 minutes
        .time_to_live(Duration::from_secs(30 * 60))
        // Time to idle (TTI):  5 minutes
        .time_to_idle(Duration::from_secs( 5 * 60))
        // Create the cache.
        .build();

    // This entry will expire after 5 minutes (TTI) if there is no get().
    cache.insert(0, "zero");

    // This get() will extend the entry life for another 5 minutes.
    cache.get(&0);

    // Even though we keep calling get(), the entry will expire
    // after 30 minutes (TTL) from the insert().
}

Hashing Algorithm

By default, a cache uses a hashing algorithm selected to provide resistance against HashDoS attacks.

The default hashing algorithm is the one used by std::collections::HashMap, which is currently SipHash 1-3, though this is subject to change at any point in the future.

While its performance is very competitive for medium sized keys, other hashing algorithms will outperform it for small keys such as integers as well as large keys such as long strings. However those algorithms will typically not protect against attacks such as HashDoS.

The hashing algorithm can be replaced on a per-Cache basis using the build_with_hasher method of the CacheBuilder. Many alternative algorithms are available on crates.io, such as the aHash crate.

Minimum Supported Rust Version

This crate's minimum supported Rust version (MSRV) is 1.45.2.

If no feature is enabled, MSRV will be updated conservatively. When using other features, like future, MSRV might be updated more frequently, up to the latest stable. In both cases, increasing MSRV is not considered a semver-breaking change.

Road Map

  • async optimized caches. (v0.2.0)
  • Cache statistics. (Hit rate, etc.)
  • Upgrade TinyLFU to Window TinyLFU.
  • The variable (per-entry) expiration, using a hierarchical timer wheel.

About the Name

Moka is named after the moka pot, a stove-top coffee maker that brews espresso-like coffee using boiling water pressurized by steam.

License

Moka is distributed under either of

  • The MIT license
  • The Apache License (Version 2.0)

at your option.

See LICENSE-MIT and LICENSE-APACHE for details.

Dependencies

~1.9–3MB
~60K SLoC