6 releases

0.2.2 Mar 22, 2023
0.2.1 Mar 18, 2023
0.1.2 Mar 13, 2023

#434 in Hardware support

Used in burble-fs

MPL-2.0 license

16K SLoC

Blackrock User-Mode Bluetooth LE Library

crates.io docs.rs License

A cross-platform user-mode BLE stack implementation starting from the USB transport layer via libusb.

Project status: Under active development. Tested on Windows and Linux. Not accepting external contributions at this time. The library implements all components for a BLE GATT server (peripheral role) and LE Secure Connections pairing. Minimum supported Bluetooth version is 5.0. All APIs are subject to change prior to v1.0.

Reference documents:

Profiles and services:

Example Server

The server example brings up a demo GATT server to test controller functionality.

Listing available Bluetooth controllers

$ cargo run --example server
Available controllers (pass 'ID <VID>:<PID>' to '--vid' and '--pid' options):
Bus 002 Device 012: ID 7392:c611
Bus 002 Device 003: ID 8087:0033

Running the server

  • Linux users need to either configure udev permissions or run the example binary via sudo to give libusb device write access to the USB device.
  • Windows users need to follow driver installation instructions from the section below.

Look for "Burble" Bluetooth device on the client. You can use nRF Connect for Mobile to get more details about the server advertisements and GATT services.

Some clients may not support extended LE advertising. Use the --legacy option to switch to legacy advertising PDUs.

$ RUST_LOG=info cargo run --example server -- --vid 7392 --pid c611
 INFO burble::host::usb::libusb: libusb version:
 INFO burble::host::usb::libusb: Using WinUSB backend
 INFO server: Local version: LocalVersion { hci_version: V5_1, hci_subversion: 11, lmp_version: V5_1, company_id: CompanyId(0x005D => "Realtek Semiconductor Corporation"), lmp_subversion: 34657 }
 INFO server: Device address: Public(08:BE:AC:2E:0D:EE)
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: GATT schema:
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0001] GenericAccess <0x1800>
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0002] |__ DeviceName <0x2A00>
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0003] |   |__ [Value <0x2A00>]
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0004] |__ Appearance <0x2A01>
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0005]     |__ [Value <0x2A01>]
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0006] GenericAttribute <0x1801>
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0007] |__ ServiceChanged <0x2A05>
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0008] |   |__ [Value <0x2A05>]
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0009] |   |__ ClientCharacteristicConfiguration <0x2902>
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x000A] |__ ClientSupportedFeatures <0x2B29>
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x000B] |   |__ [Value <0x2B29>]
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x000C] |__ DatabaseHash <0x2B2A>
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x000D]     |__ [Value <0x2B2A>]
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x000E] (Secondary) Battery <0x180F>
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x000F] |__ BatteryLevel <0x2A19>
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0010]     |__ [Value <0x2A19>]
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0011] Glucose <0x1808>
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0012] |__ [Include 0x000E..=0x0010]
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0013] |__ GlucoseMeasurement <0x2A18>
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0014]     |__ [Value <0x2A18>]
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0015]     |__ ClientCharacteristicConfiguration <0x2902>
 INFO burble::gatt::schema: [0x0016]     |__ CharacteristicExtendedProperties <0x2900>


Either use Zadig to install the libusbK driver for a specific Bluetooth device (recommended), or install UsbDk, which has some known issues, but doesn't require changing device drivers. See libusb Windows wiki page for more info.

Using Zadig

  1. Run Zadig and enable Options → List All Devices.
  2. Select the target controller.
  3. Install either libusbK or WinUSB driver. The former is recommended because it can reset the USB device. Each driver has some known issues, so if you're having problems with one, try the other.

UsbDk Known Issues

Unfortunately, UsbDk appears to be unmaintained, so its use is discouraged.

Hanging libusb_open

If a redirected device is not closed on exit (e.g. after a crash), subsequent attempts to open it may cause the process to hang for about two minutes, followed by a "Redirector startup failed" libusb error message. See daynix/UsbDk#105.


A WDF_VIOLATION BSOD may be caused by having multiple multiple power policy owners enabled for the Bluetooth USB device. There are two workarounds:

  1. Disable the device in the Device Manager.
  2. Uncheck the option to "Allow the computer to turn off this device to save power" in Device Properties -> Power Management tab.


What are the goals of this project?

Burble aims to become a feature-complete Bluetooth LE library, implementing HCI, L2CAP, GAP, ATT, GATT, and SMP layers for both the Central and Peripheral roles.

How is this different from other Bluetooth libraries?

Most libraries use OS-specific APIs and drivers to access the controller. Burble communicates with the controller directly over USB (or another transport), bypassing all OS-specific functionality. This allows it to run on all major operating systems.

What are the downsides to this approach?

Burble requires exclusive access to the controller. The OS and other applications cannot use the controller at the same time. On Windows, this means installing a libusb-compatible driver which prevents the OS from identifying the controller as a Bluetooth device. On Linux, the driver is automatically detached while Burble is using the controller.

Another potential downside is loss of vendor-specific functionality. Though this can be added for individual controllers, Burble focuses on implementing the Core Bluetooth Specification that is common to all controllers.

What are the advantages?

Having exclusive controller access allows complete control over all aspects of the controller operation, advertising, scanning, GATT services, etc. This is particularly useful for implementing the peripheral role when you need specific configuration for GAP and GATT services.

Can Burble be used in embedded (no_std) systems?

Currently, no, but this is an eventual goal. A few components, like the libusb event thread, currently require std. These will be put behind feature flags or redesigned to allow Burble core to function on any system that can implement the host::Transport trait.

Tested Controllers

Below is a list of Bluetooth controllers that have been tested with this library.


Device VID:PID BLE Version Chip ACL Buffers
Edimax BT-8500 7392:C611 5.1 RTL8761BUV 8 * 251B
Intel AX210 8087:0032 5.3 - 3 * 251B
Intel AX211 8087:0033 5.3 - 3 * 251B


Device VID:PID BLE Version Chip
Edimax BT-8500 7392:C611 5.1 RTL8761BUV
Intel AX210 8087:0032 5.3 -
Intel AX211 8087:0033 5.3 -

Copyright 2023 Blackrock Neurotech. Licensed under the Mozilla Public License 2.0.

This is not an officially supported Blackrock Neurotech product.


~218K SLoC