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Uses new Rust 2021

0.2.0 Apr 18, 2022
0.1.7 Apr 18, 2022
0.1.3 Mar 29, 2022

#86 in WebSocket

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MIT license

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An implementation of my websocket binary packet in rust this only implements the serialization and deserialization of packets leaving you open to using whichever websocket system you would like.


Directions are used within packet macros to define which kind of traits should be implemented for each object. This is used to reduce the number of traits that are implemented when they don't need to be.

Directions are represented as arrows. The following are the meanings for each arrow

Arrows are represented in code as <-, ->, and <-> the fancy arrow is only used in this documentation

← Left Arrow

<- The left arrow is used for data that is read-only, this will only implement the readable trait for this item.

→ Right Arrow

-> The right arrow is used for data that is write-only, this will only implement the writable trait for this item

↔ Double Headed Arrow

<-> The double-headed arrow is used for data the is both readable and writable this implements both the readable and writable traits

Data Types

The following is a table of Data Types that can be transmitted through this packet system along with their respective types in other languages and some other custom data types.

Standard Number Types

Rust Type Range Javascript (wsbps-js) Length (bytes)
i8 -128 to 127 number (i8) 1
i16 -32768 to 32767 number (i16) 2
i32 -2147483648 to 2147483647 number (i32) 4
u8 0 to 255 number (u8) 1
u16 0 to 65535 number (u16) 2
u32 0 to 4294967295 number (u32) 4
f32 -3.4e+38 to 3.4e+38 number (f32) 4
f64 -1.7e+308 to +1.7e+308 number (f64) 4

All number types listed in the table above are encoded using Big-Endian

Variable Length Numbers


VarInts is a number that can range in size anywhere from 0 to 4294967295 and can be sent as binary data ranging from the length of 1byte to the length of 4 bytes

VarInts / VarLongs are serialized 7 bits at a time starting with the least significant bits the most significant bit (msb) in each output byte indicates if there is a continuation byte (msb = 1)


VarInt Binary Byte Format
1 00000001 1
127 01111111 127
128 10000000 00000001 128, 1
255 11111111 00000001 255, 1
300 10101100 00000010 172, 2
16384 10000000 10000000 00000001 128, 128, 1
2097152 10000000 10000000 10000000 00000001 128, 128, 128, 1

As you can see this format is far more efficient for storing data of varying length however the VarInt has the same maximum length as the u32 (Unsigned 32-bit integer)


The VarInt data type can only shift up to 5 offsets which restricts it to only handling u32 numbers. The VarLong on the other hand can shift up to 10 offsets meaning that it can encode and handle all numbers between 0 and 18446744073709551615 (u64)

VarLongs are encoded in the same way as VarInts just they are allowed a greater number of shifts when being read these are seperated in order to reduce memory allocations for VarInts so that they don't need to be allocated as u64 unless necessary (VarLong)


Booleans are encoded as a singular byte 1 representing a true value and 0 representing a false value.


Strings are encoded using a VarInt for the length of the string followed by a sequence of the UTF-8 encoded bytes with the length being equal to the length VarInt - 1

Length VarInt
Contents [u8; Length]


Array data types use Vectors these are encoded in the same way that strings are with a VarInt for the length of the array and then all the respective values for that array are encoded in sequence after the VarInt

Length VarInt
For Length {
    Item Any

You can represent these types in packet structs using the Vec<Type> a common implementation of this would be a ByteArray which is represented as a Vec<u8>

Packet Groups

To create packets you use the packets macro. Inside the macro you must specify packet "Groups" these groups are used to handle the differences between client and server packet IDs. The syntax for defining a group is as follows:

use wsbps::*;
packets! {
    GroupName (Direction) {
        //... Packets

In this example you would replace the "GroupName" with the name of the packet group and "Direction" with a direction arrow for this packet group

This macro will then generate an enum with the provided Group name which can be used to read packets if the read direction is implemented.


You can then define packets with the following structure. This structure should be used inside group blocks

Name (ID) {
    example: u8
    // Normal struct field:type

In this example you should replace "Name" with the name of this packet. The name you provide is also the name that the generated struct will have. "ID" should be replaced with a unique identifier for this packet IDs are encoded using VarInts, so they can range anywhere from 0x00000000 - 0xffffffff (0 - 4294967295).

The following is an example of both packet groups and packet implementations put together

use wsbps::*;

packets! {
    BiPackets (<->) {
        APacket (0x01) {
            user: u8
    ServerPackets (->) {
        BPacket (0x00) {
            name: u8
    ClientPackets (<-) {
        CPacket (0x00) {
            test: u8,
            test2: u8

Structs & Enums

If you want to use custom structs or enums within your packets there is two options.

Option 1

packet_data macro

You can easily create enum and structs for use within packets using the packet_data macro. This macro will automatically generate the required read and write traits for the enums / structs you provide

use wsbps::*;

packet_data! {
    enum Test (<->) (VarInt) {
        X: 1,
        B: 999
    struct TestStruct (->) {
        Name: String

The first set of brackets contains the "Direction" for this enum /struct type which tells it which traits it needs to implement and the second set of brackets on enums contains the data type for this enum in this case the VarInt data type is used. Any integer data type is acceptable

Option 2

If your data requires a custom encoding or is too complex to describe within a struct or enum you can manually implement the Readable and Writable traits from the io module

impl Writable for SomeType {
    fn write<B: Write>(&mut self, o: &mut B) -> Result<()> {
       // Your writing logic

impl Readable for SomeType {
    fn read<B: Read>(i: &mut B) -> Result<Self> where Self: Sized {
        // Your reading logic


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