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#104 in Web programming

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Used in 3 crates



Rust Web Push

Cargo tests crates.io docs.rs

This crate implements the server half of the web push API, in Rust!

For more background on the web push framework itself, please reference this excellent document.


Clients require an async executor. System Openssl is needed for compilation.

Migration notes

This library is still in active development, and will have breaking changes in accordance with semver. Please view the GitHub release notes for detailed notes.


use web_push::*;
use web_push::clients::isahc_client::IsahcWebPushClient;
use std::fs::File;

async fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn std::error::Error + Send + Sync + 'static>> {
    let endpoint = "https://updates.push.services.mozilla.com/wpush/v1/...";
    let p256dh = "key_from_browser_as_base64";
    let auth = "auth_from_browser_as_base64";

    //You would likely get this by deserializing a browser `pushSubscription` object via serde.  
    let subscription_info = SubscriptionInfo::new(

    //Read signing material for payload.
    let file = File::open("private.pem").unwrap();
    let mut sig_builder = VapidSignatureBuilder::from_pem(file, &subscription_info)?.build()?;

    //Now add payload and encrypt.
    let mut builder = WebPushMessageBuilder::new(&subscription_info);
    let content = "Encrypted payload to be sent in the notification".as_bytes();
    builder.set_payload(ContentEncoding::Aes128Gcm, content);

    let client = IsahcWebPushClient::new()?;

    //Finally, send the notification!


VAPID authentication prevents unknown sources sending notifications to the client and is required by all current browsers when sending a payload.

The private key to be used by the server can be generated with OpenSSL:

openssl ecparam -genkey -name prime256v1 -out private_key.pem

To derive a public key from the just-generated private key, to be used in the JavaScript client:

openssl ec -in private_key.pem -pubout -outform DER|tail -c 65|base64|tr '/+' '_-'|tr -d '\n'

The signature is created with VapidSignatureBuilder. It automatically adds the required claims aud and exp. Adding these claims to the builder manually will override the default values.

Using the example program

To send a web push from command line, first subscribe to receive push notifications with your browser and store the subscription info into a json file. It should have the following content:

  "endpoint": "https://updates.push.services.mozilla.com/wpush/v1/TOKEN",
  "keys": {
    "auth": "####secret####",
    "p256dh": "####public_key####"

Google has good instructions for building a frontend to receive notifications.

Store the subscription info to examples/test.json and send a notification with cargo run --example simple_send -- -f examples/test.json -p "It works!".


Currently, the crate implements RFC8188 content encryption for notification payloads. This is done by delegating encryption to mozilla's ece crate. Our security is thus tied to theirs. The default client is built on isahc, but can be swapped out with a hyper based client using the hyper-client feature. Custom clients can be made using the request_builder module.

Library tested with Google's and Mozilla's push notification services. Also verified to work on Edge.

Openssl is needed to build. Install openssl-dev or equivalent on *nix, or openssl using vcpkg on Windows. A nix script is also available.

If installing on Windows, this is the exact command:

vcpkg integrate install
vcpkg install openssl:x64-windows-static-md


If you get an error or the push notification doesn't work you can try to debug using the following instructions:

Add the following to your Cargo.toml:

log = "0.4"
pretty_env_logger = "0.3"

Add the following to your main.rs:

extern crate pretty_env_logger;

// ...
fn main() {
    // ...

Or use any other logging library compatible with https://docs.rs/log/

Then run your program with the following environment variables:

RUST_LOG="web_push::client=trace" cargo run

This should print some more information about the requests to the push service which may aid you or somebody else in finding the error.


~452K SLoC