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0.2.1 Nov 9, 2018
0.2.0 Sep 26, 2018
0.1.6 Jun 19, 2018
0.1.4 May 26, 2018

#73 in Data structures

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Used in 2 crates

MIT/Apache

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This project provides various implementations of trees serving for general purpose.

Features

  • Traversal

    Each node in a tree provides standard forward iterators for visiting its children nodes. Tree traversal can be done using these iterators in recursive function calls.

    Depth-first search and breadth-first iterators are also provided.

  • Operation

    The methods for adding or removing child tree at the front/back of a node’s children list are guaranteed constant time. Accessing, inserting or removing nodes in any position are linear time.

    The potted trees constructed in batch mode can randomly access the child nodes in constant time.

    The library users does not need any unsafe code to use this library.

  • Notation

    Tow compact notations of tree construction has been developed by overloading sub and div operators. They make complex tree composition look like literal expression, reducing a bit of syntax noise.

    The first notation is using operator overloading. Using operator '-' to express sibling relationship, and '/' to express parent-child relationship. Something like root /( first_child - second_child ).

    The second notation is using Rust tuple, something like ( root, first_child, second_child ).

    See the example section for more.

Implementations

Currently this library provides three different trees, implemented in raw-pointer-linked or vec-backed nodes.

  • linked::singly Two pointers per node. Hold no size infomation. Note that constant time pop_back is not supported.

  • linked::singly Four pointers plus two u32s per node. Hold children count and node count.

  • potted Seven u32s per node. Hold children count, node count and adjoined children count.

Prominent types

Tree, Forest and Node are the big three types in this library.

  • Tree is a collection of owned nodes in hierarchical structure, with one top-level node named root.

  • Forest is similar to Tree, except that it has no root node.

  • Node is the underlying storage type and opaque to the library users. Instead, &Node/&mut Node or NodeRef/NodeMut are exposed.

Examples

  • notation of a literal tree

    let linked_tree = tr(0) /( tr(1)/tr(2)/tr(3) ) /( tr(4)/tr(5)/tr(6) );
    let potted_tree = potted::Tree::from(( 0, (1,2,3), (4,5,6) ));
    

    They both encode a tree drawn as follows:

    .............
    .     0     .
    .   /   \   .
    .  1     4  .
    . / \   / \ .
    .2   3 5   6.
    .............
    
  • use tree notation to reduce syntax noise, quoted from crate reflection_derive, version 0.1.1:

    quote! {
        #(
            -( ::reflection::variant( stringify!( #vnames ))
                /(
                    #(
                        -( ::reflection::field(
                                #fnames,
                                <#ftypes1 as ::reflection::Reflection>::ty(),
                                <#ftypes2 as ::reflection::Reflection>::name(),
                                Some( <#ftypes3 as ::reflection::Reflection>::members )))
                    )*
                )
            )
        )*
    }
    

    The starting of tree operations are denoted by -( and /( which are humble enough to let the reader focusing on the data part.

  • use iterators if the tree travesal is a "driving wheel"( you can iterate over the tree on your own ).

    use trees::{tr,Node};
    use std::fmt::Display;
                                                                     
    let tree = tr(0)
        /( tr(1) /tr(2)/tr(3) )
        /( tr(4) /tr(5)/tr(6) );
                                                                     
    fn tree_to_string<T:Display>( node: &Node<T> ) -> String {
        if node.is_leaf() {
            node.data.to_string()
        } else {
            format!( "{}( {})", node.data, 
                node.iter().fold( String::new(),
                    |s,c| s + &tree_to_string(c) + &" " ))
        }
    }
                                                                     
    assert_eq!( tree_to_string( &tree ), "0( 1( 2 3 ) 4( 5 6 ) )" );
    
  • use TreeWalk when the tree travesal is a "driven wheel"( driven by other library ). Quoted from crate tsv, version 0.1.0:

        fn next_value_seed<V:DeserializeSeed<'de>>( &mut self, seed: V ) -> Result<V::Value> {
            let result = self.next_element_in_row( seed )?;
            self.de.next_column();
            self.de.row += 1;
            self.de.pop_stack(); // finish key-value pair
            self.de.next_column();
            self.de.columns.revisit();
            Ok( result )
        }
    

    The serde library is driving on the schema tree when (de)serializing variables. Use TreeWalk methods such as next_column and revisit to follow the step.

License

Under Apache License 2.0 or MIT License, at your will.

Quickstart

API document and quickstart here: docs.rs

Dependencies