33 releases (14 stable)

1.3.11 Sep 19, 2020
1.3.10 Sep 18, 2020
1.3.2 Aug 26, 2020
0.4.5 Aug 5, 2020
0.1.0 Jul 8, 2020

#27 in Database interfaces

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LGPL-3.0

97KB
1.5K SLoC

Transistor

A Rust Crux Client crate/lib. For now, this crate intends to support 2 ways to interact with Crux:

  • Via Docker with a crux-standalone version docker-hub. Current Docker image juxt/crux-standalone:20.07-1.10.0.
  • Via HTTP using the HTTP API.
  • Async support.
  • Clojure.api. (To be evaluated.)
  • FFI. (To be evaluated.)

Other solutions may be added after the first release.

Bitemporal Crux

Crux is optimised for efficient and globally consistent point-in-time queries using a pair of transaction-time and valid-time timestamps.

Ad-hoc systems for bitemporal recordkeeping typically rely on explicitly tracking either valid-from and valid-to timestamps or range types directly within relations. The bitemporal document model that Crux provides is very simple to reason about and it is universal across the entire database, therefore it does not require you to consider which historical information is worth storing in special "bitemporal tables" upfront.

One or more documents may be inserted into Crux via a put transaction at a specific valid-time, defaulting to the transaction time (i.e. now), and each document remains valid until explicitly updated with a new version via put or deleted via delete.

Why?

Time Purpose
transaction-time Used for audit purposes, technical requirements such as event sourcing.
valid-time Used for querying data across time, historical analysis.

transaction-time represents the point at which data arrives into the database. This gives us an audit trail and we can see what the state of the database was at a particular point in time. You cannot write a new transaction with a transaction-time that is in the past.

valid-time is an arbitrary time that can originate from an upstream system, or by default is set to transaction-time. Valid time is what users will typically use for query purposes.

Reference crux bitemporality and value of bitemporality

Usage

To add this crate to your project you should add one of the following line to your dependencies field in Cargo.toml:

[dependencies]
transistor = "1.3.11"

Creating a Crux Client

All operations with Transistor start in the module client with Crux::new("localhost", "3000"). The struct Crux is responsabile for defining request HeadersMap and the request URL. The URL definition is required and it is done by the static function new, which receives as argument a host and a port and returns a Crux instance. To change HeadersMap info so that you can add AUTHORIZATION you can use the function with_authorization that receives as argument the authorization token and mutates the Crux instance.

  • HeaderMap already contains the header Content-Type: application/edn.

Finally, to create a Crux Client the function <type>_client should be called, for example http_client. This function returns a struct that contains all possible implementarions to query Crux Docker and Standalone HTTP Server.

use transistor::client::Crux;

// HttpClient with AUTHORIZATION
let auth_client = Crux::new("127.0.0.1","3000").with_authorization("my-auth-token").http_client();

// HttpClient without AUTHORIZATION
let client = Crux::new("127.0.0.1","3000").http_client();

Http Client

Once you have called http_client you will have an instance of the HttpClient struct which has a bunch of functions to query Crux on Docker and Standalone HTTP Server:

  • state queries endpoint / with a GET. No args. Returns various details about the state of the database.
let body = client.state().unwrap();

// StateResponse { 
//     index___index_version: 5, 
//     doc_log___consumer_state: None, 
//     tx_log___consumer_state: None, 
//     kv___kv_store: "crux.kv.rocksdb.RocksKv", 
//     kv___estimate_num_keys: 56, 
//     kv___size: 2271042 
// }
  • tx_log requests endpoint /tx-log via POST. A Vector of Action is expected as argument. The "write" endpoint, to post transactions.
use transistor::http::{Action};
use transistor::client::Crux;
use transistor::types::{CruxId};

let person1 = Person {
    crux__db___id: CruxId::new("jorge-3"), 
    ..
};

let person2 = Person {
    crux__db___id: CruxId::new("manuel-1"), 
    ..
};

let action1 = Action::Put(edn_rs::to_string(person1));
let action2 = Action::Put(edn_rs::to_string(person2));

let body = client.tx_log(vec![action1, action2]).unwrap();
// {:crux.tx/tx-id 7, :crux.tx/tx-time #inst \"2020-07-16T21:50:39.309-00:00\"}
  • tx_logs requests endpoint /tx-log via GET. No args. Returns a list of all transactions.
use transistor::client::Crux;

let body = client.tx_logs().unwrap();

// TxLogsResponse {
//     tx_events: [
//         TxLogResponse {
//             tx___tx_id: 0,
//             tx___tx_time: 2020-07-09T23:38:06.465-00:00,
//             tx__event___tx_events: Some(
//                 [
//                     [
//                         ":crux.tx/put",
//                         "a15f8b81a160b4eebe5c84e9e3b65c87b9b2f18e",
//                         "125d29eb3bed1bf51d64194601ad4ff93defe0e2",
//                     ],
//                 ],
//             ),
//         },
//         TxLogResponse {
//             tx___tx_id: 1,
//             tx___tx_time: 2020-07-09T23:39:33.815-00:00,
//             tx__event___tx_events: Some(
//                 [
//                     [
//                         ":crux.tx/put",
//                         "a15f8b81a160b4eebe5c84e9e3b65c87b9b2f18e",
//                         "1b42e0d5137e3833423f7bb958622bee29f91eee",
//                     ],
//                 ],
//             ),
//         },
//         ...
//     ]
// } 
  • entity requests endpoint /entity via POST. A serialized CruxId, serialized Edn::Key or a String containing a keyword must be passed as argument. Returns an entity for a given ID and optional valid-time/transaction-time co-ordinates.
let person = Person {
    crux__db___id: CruxId::new("hello-entity"), 
    ...
};

let client = Crux::new("localhost", "3000").http_client();

let edn_body = client.entity(edn_rs::to_string(person.crux__db___id)).unwrap();
// Map(
//     Map(
//         {
//             ":crux.db/id": Key(
//                 ":hello-entity",
//             ),
//             ":first-name": Str(
//                 "Hello",
//             ),
//             ":last-name": Str(
//                 "World",
//             ),
//         },
//     ),
// )
  • entity_timed is similar to entity as it requests the same endpoint, the difference is that it can send transaction-time and valid-time as query-params. This is done by the extra arguments transaction_time: Option<DateTime<FixedOffset>> and valid_time: Option<DateTime<FixedOffset>>.

  • entity_tx requests endpoint /entity-tx via POST. A serialized CruxId, serialized Edn::Key or a String containing a keyword must be passed as argument. Returns the transaction that most recently set a key.

use transistor::http::{Action};
use transistor::client::Crux;
use transistor::types::{CruxId};

let person = Person {
    crux__db___id: CruxId::new("hello-entity"), 
    ...
};

let client = Crux::new("localhost", "3000").http_client();

let tx_body = client.entity_tx(edn_rs::to_string(person.crux__db___id)).unwrap();
// EntityTxResponse {
//     db___id: "d72ccae848ce3a371bd313865cedc3d20b1478ca",
//     db___content_hash: "1828ebf4466f98ea3f5252a58734208cd0414376",
//     db___valid_time: 2020-07-20T20:38:27.515-00:00,
//     tx___tx_id: 31,
//     tx___tx_time: 2020-07-20T20:38:27.515-00:00,
// }
  • entity_tx_timed is similar to entity_tx as it requests the same endpoint, the difference is that it can send transaction-time and valid-time as query-params. This is done by the extra arguments transaction_time: Option<DateTime<FixedOffset>> and valid_time: Option<DateTime<FixedOffset>>.

  • entity_history requests endpoint /entity-history via GET. Arguments are the crux.db/id as a String, an ordering argument defined by the enum http::Order (Asc or Desc) and a boolean for the with-docs? flag. The response is a Vector containing EntityHistoryElement. If with-docs? is true, thank the field db__doc, :crux.db/doc, witll return an Option<Edn> containing the inserted struct.

use transistor::client::Crux;
use transistor::http::Order;
use transistor::types::CruxId;

let person = Person {
    crux__db___id: CruxId::new("hello-history"),
    ...

let client = Crux::new("localhost", "3000").http_client();

let tx_body = client.entity_tx(edn_rs::to_string(person.crux__db___id)).unwrap();

let entity_history = client.entity_history(tx_body.db___id.clone(), Order::Asc, true);
// EntityHistoryResponse { history: [
//     EntityHistoryElement { 
//         db___valid_time: 2020-08-05T03:00:06.476-00:00, 
//         tx___tx_id: 37, tx___tx_time: 2020-08-05T03:00:06.476-00:00, 
//         db___content_hash: "2da097a2dffbb9828cd4377f1461a59e8454674b", 
//         db__doc: Some(Map(Map(
//                 {":crux.db/id": Key(":hello-history"), 
//                 ":first-name": Str("Hello"), 
//                 ":last-name": Str("World")}
//                ))) 
//     }
// ]}

let entity_history_without_docs = client.entity_history(tx_body.db___id, Order::Asc, false);
// EntityHistoryResponse { 
//     history: [
//         EntityHistoryElement {
//              db___valid_time: 2020-08-05T03:00:06.476-00:00, 
//              tx___tx_id: 37, 
//              tx___tx_time: 2020-08-05T03:00:06.476-00:00, 
//              db___content_hash: "2da097a2dffbb9828cd4377f1461a59e8454674b", 
//              db__doc: None 
//             }
//         }
//     ]}
  • entity_history_timed is similar to entity_histoty as it requests the same endpoint, the difference is that it can send start-transaction-time, end-transaction-time, start-valid-time and end-valid-time as query-params. This is done by adding a Vec<TimeHistory> containing one TimeHistory::TransactionTime and/or one TimeHistory::ValidTime, both of them receive two Option<DateTime<Utc>>. The first DateTime is the start-<type>-time and the second is the end-<type>-time.

  • query requests endpoint /query via POST. Argument is a query of the type Query. Retrives a Set containing a vector of the values defined by the function Query::find. Available functions are find, where_clause, args, order_by, limit, offset, examples complex_query and limit_offset_query have examples on how to use them.

use transistor::client::Crux;
use transistor::types::{query::Query};

let client = Crux::new("localhost", "3000").http_client();

let query_is_sql = Query::find(vec!["?p1", "?n"])
    .where_clause(vec!["?p1 :name ?n", "?p1 :is-sql true"])
    .build();
// Query:
// {:query
//     {:find [?p1 ?n]
//      :where [[?p1 :name ?n]
//              [?p1 :is-sql true]]}}

let is_sql = client.query(query_is_sql.unwrap()).unwrap();
// {[":mysql", "MySQL"], [":postgres", "Postgres"]} BTreeSet

Action is an enum with a set of options to use in association with the function tx_log:

  • Put - Write a version of a document
  • Delete - Deletes the specific document at a given valid time
  • Evict - Evicts a document entirely, including all historical versions (receives only the ID to evict)
  • Match - Matches the current state of an entity, if the state doesn't match the provided document, the transaction will not continue

Query is a struct responsible for creating the fields and serializing them into the correct query format. It has a function for each field and a build function to help check if it is correctyly formatted.

  • find is a static builder function to define the elements inside the :find clause.
  • where_clause is a builder function that defines the vector os elements inside the :where [] array.
  • order_by is a builder function to define the elements inside the :order-by clause.
  • args is a builder function to define the elements inside the :args clause.
  • limit is a builder function to define the elements inside the :limit clause.
  • offset is a builder function to define the elements inside the :offset clause.
  • with_full_results is a builder function to define the flag full-results? as true. This allows your query response to return the whole document instead of only the searched keys. The result of the Query {:query {:find [?user ?a] :where [[?user :first-name ?a]] :full-results? true}} will be a BTreeSet<Vec<String>> like ([{:crux.db/id :fafilda, :first-name "Jorge", :last-name "Klaus"} "Jorge"]), so the document will need further EDN parsing to become the document's struct.

Errors are defined in the CruxError enum.

  • EdnError is a wrapper over edn_rs::EdnError.
  • RequestError is originated by reqwest crate. Failed to make HTTP request.
  • QueryFormatError is originated when the provided Query struct did not match schema.
  • QueryError is responsible for encapsulation the Stacktrace error from Crux response:
use transistor::client::Crux;
use transistor::types::{query::Query};

let _client = Crux::new("localhost", "3000").http_client();

// field `n` doesn't exist
let _query_error_response = Query::find(vec!["?p1", "?n"])
    .where_clause(vec!["?p1 :name ?g", "?p1 :is-sql true"])
    .build();

let error = client.query(query_error_response?)?;
println!("Stacktrace \n{:?}", error);

// Stacktrace
// QueryError("{:via
//      [{:type java.lang.IllegalArgumentException,
//        :message \"Find refers to unknown variable: n\",
//    :at [crux.query$q invokeStatic \"query.clj\" 1152]}],
//  :trace
//  [[crux.query$q invokeStatic \"query.clj\" 1152]
//   [crux.query$q invoke \"query.clj\" 1099]
//   [crux.query$q$fn__10850 invoke \"query.clj\" 1107]
//   [clojure.core$binding_conveyor_fn$fn__5754 invoke \"core.clj\" 2030]
//   [clojure.lang.AFn call \"AFn.java\" 18]
//   [java.util.concurrent.FutureTask run \"FutureTask.java\" 264]
//   [java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor
//    runWorker
//    \"ThreadPoolExecutor.java\"
//    1128]
//   [java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker
//    run
//    \"ThreadPoolExecutor.java\"
//    628]
//   [java.lang.Thread run \"Thread.java\" 834]],
//  :cause \"Find refers to unknown variable: n\"}
// ")

Testing the Crux Client

For testing purpose there is a feature called mock that enables the http_mock function that is a replacement for the http_client function. To use it run your commands with the the flag --features "mock" as in cargo test --test lib --no-fail-fast --features "mock". The mocking feature uses the crate mockito = "0.26" as a Cargo dependency. An example usage with this feature enabled:

use transistor::client::Crux;
use transistor::http::Action;
use transistor::edn_rs::{ser_struct, Serialize};
use transistor::types::{CruxId};
use mockito::mock;

#[test]
#[cfg(feature = "mock")]
fn mock_client() {
    let _m = mock("POST", "/tx-log")
        .with_status(200)
        .match_body("[[:crux.tx/put { :crux.db/id :jorge-3, :first-name \"Michael\", :last-name \"Jorge\", }], [:crux.tx/put { :crux.db/id :manuel-1, :first-name \"Diego\", :last-name \"Manuel\", }]]")
        .with_header("content-type", "text/plain")
        .with_body("{:crux.tx/tx-id 8, :crux.tx/tx-time #inst \"2020-07-16T21:53:14.628-00:00\"}")
        .create();

    let person1 = Person {
        // ...
    };

    let person2 = Person {
        /// ...
    };

    let actions = vec![Action::Put(edn_rs::to_string(person1)), Action::Put(edn_rs::to_string(person2))];
    
    let body = Crux::new("localhost", "3000")
        .http_mock()
        .tx_log(actions)
        .unwrap();

    assert_eq!(
        format!("{:?}", body),
        String::from("TxLogResponse { tx___tx_id: 8, tx___tx_time: 2020-07-16T21:53:14.628-00:00, tx__event___tx_events: None }")
    );
}

ser_struct! {
    #[derive(Debug, Clone)]
    #[allow(non_snake_case)]
    pub struct Person {
        crux__db___id: CruxId,
        // ...
    }
}

Async support

Async feature is still in BETA as it depends heavily on unwraps.

It is possible to use async/await http client, for that it is necessary to enable feature async in transistor, transistor = { version = "1.3.11", features = ["async"] }. With this feature enabled the HttpClient will use reqwest::Client instead of reqwest::blocking::Client. The default async runtime for reqwest::Client is tokio, so it is good to have tokio with feature macros, as well as futures, in your Cargo.toml:

futures = {version = "0.3.5" }
tokio = {version = "0.2.22", features = ["macros"] }

An async query example can be found below:

use tokio::prelude::*;
use transistor::client::Crux;
use transistor::edn_rs::{ser_struct, Serialize};
use transistor::types::http::Action;
use transistor::types::{
    error::CruxError,
    {query::Query, CruxId},
};

#[tokio::main]
async fn main() {
    let crux = Database {
        crux__db___id: CruxId::new("crux"),
        name: "Crux Datalog".to_string(),
        is_sql: false,
    };

    let psql = Database {
        crux__db___id: CruxId::new("postgres"),
        name: "Postgres".to_string(),
        is_sql: true,
    };

    let mysql = Database {
        crux__db___id: CruxId::new("mysql"),
        name: "MySQL".to_string(),
        is_sql: true,
    };

    let client = Crux::new("localhost", "3000").http_client();
    let action1 = Action::Put(edn_rs::to_string(crux), None);
    let action2 = Action::Put(edn_rs::to_string(psql), None);
    let action3 = Action::Put(edn_rs::to_string(mysql), None);

    let _ = client.tx_log(vec![action1, action2, action3]).await;

    let query_is_sql = Query::find(vec!["?p1", "?n"])
        .unwrap()
        .where_clause(vec!["?p1 :name ?n", "?p1 :is-sql true"])
        .unwrap()
        .build();

    let is_sql = client.query(query_is_sql.unwrap()).await;

    let query_is_no_sql = Query::find(vec!["?p1", "?n", "?s"])
        .unwrap()
        .where_clause(vec!["?p1 :name ?n", "?p1 :is-sql ?s", "?p1 :is-sql false"])
        .unwrap()
        .with_full_results()
        .build();

    let is_no_sql = client.query(query_is_no_sql.unwrap()).await;
}

ser_struct! {
    #[derive(Debug, Clone)]
    #[allow(non_snake_case)]
    pub struct Database {
        crux__db___id: CruxId,
        name: String,
        is_sql: bool
    }
}

Note use tokio::prelude::*; and #[tokio::main] \n async fn main().

Enababling feature time_as_str

It is possible to use receive the responses (TxLogResponse, EntityTxResponse, EntityHistoryElement) time dates as Strings, to do so you have to enable feature time_as_str:

transistor = { version = "1.3.11", features = ["time_as_str"] }

Possible Features

mock = ["mockito"] -> http_mock()
time_as_str = [] -> DataTime types become Strings
async = ["tokio", "futures"] -> async/await

Dependencies

A strong dependency of this crate is the edn-rs crate, as many of the return types are in the Edn format, also the edn-derive. The sync http client is reqwest with blocking feature enabled. Chrono for time values that can be DateTime<Utc>, for inserts, and DateTime<FixedOffset>, for reads, and mockito for feature mock.

Licensing

This project is licensed under LGPP-3.0 (GNU Lesser General Public License v3.0).

Dependencies

~4.5–8.5MB
~190K SLoC