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#111 in Concurrency

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MIT license

1.5K SLoC


CI crates.io docs.rs

someday is a multi-version concurrency control primitive.

A lock-free, but more memory hungry alternative to Mutex<T> or RwLock<T>.


Reader's are lock-free and most of the time wait-free.

The single Writer is lock-free, but may clone data.

When the Writer wants to push() updates to Reader's, it must:

  1. Atomically update a pointer, at which point all future readers will see the new data
  2. Re-apply the patches to the old reclaimed data OR clone the data if it cannot be reclaimed

The old data can be cheaply reclaimed and re-used by the Writer if there are no Reader's hanging onto old Commit's.

If there are still Reader's hanging onto old data, the Writer will clone the data such that it can continue.


someday is best in situations where:

Your data:

  • Is relatively cheap to clone and/or de-duplicated

and if you have many readers who:

  • Want to acquire a copy of data, lock-free
  • Hold onto data (for a little while or forever)

and a writer that:

  • Wants to mutate data, lock-free
  • Wants to push changes ASAP to new readers, lock-free
  • Doesn't mutate data that often (relative to read operations)
  • Is normally in contention with readers using normal locks (Mutex, RwLock)


  • Increased memory use: The Writer keeps at least two copies of the backing data structure, and Reader's can keep an infinite amount (as long as they continue to hold onto references)

  • Deterministic patches: The patches/functions applied to your data must be deterministic, since the Writer may apply them twice

  • Slow writes: Writes are slower than they would be directly against the backing data structure


someday's API is similar to git and semantically does similar actions.

The Writer:

  1. Calls add() to add a Patch (function) to their data
  2. Actually executes those changes by commit()'ing
  3. Can see local or remote (reader) data whenever
  4. Can atomically push() those changes to the Reader's
  5. Can continue writing without having to wait on Reader's

The Reader(s):

  1. Can continually call head() to cheaply acquire the latest "head" Commit
  2. Can hang onto those Commit objects forever (although at the peril of memory-usage)
  3. Will eventually catch up whenever the Writer calls push()


This example shows the typical use case where the Writer:

  1. Adds some changes
  2. Reads their local changes
  3. Locks in those changes by calling commit()
  4. Finally reveals those changes to the readers by calling push()

and the Reader:

  1. Continually reads their latest head Commit of the current data
  2. Eventually catches up when the Writer publishes with push()

The code:

use someday::{

// Create Reader/Writer for the string "hello".
let (r, mut w) = someday::new("hello".to_string());

// The readers see the data.
let commit: CommitRef<String> = r.head();
assert_eq!(commit.data, "hello");
assert_eq!(commit.timestamp, 0);

// Writer writes some data, but does not commit.
w.add(Patch::Ptr(|w, _| w.push_str(" world")));
// Nothing committed, data still the same everywhere.
let data: &String = w.data();
assert_eq!(*data, "hello");
// Patches not yet committed:
assert_eq!(w.staged().len(), 1);

// Readers still see old data.
assert_eq!(r.head().data, "hello");

// Writer writes some more data.
w.add(Patch::Ptr(|w, _| w.push_str("!")));
// Readers still see old data.
assert_eq!(r.head().data, "hello");

// Writer commits their patches.
let commit_info: CommitInfo = w.commit();
// The 2 operation were committed locally
// (only the Writer sees them).
assert_eq!(commit_info.patches, 2);

// Readers still see old data.
assert_eq!(r.head().data, "hello");

// Writer finally reveals those
// changes by calling `push()`.
let push_info: PushInfo = w.push();
assert_eq!(push_info.commits, 1);

// Now readers see updates.
let commit: CommitRef<String> = r.head();
assert_eq!(commit.data, "hello world!");
// Each call to `.commit()` added 1 to the timestamp.
assert_eq!(commit.timestamp, 1);

Feature Flags

These features are for (de)serialization.

You can directly (de)serialize your data T from a:

  • Writer<T>
  • Reader<T>
  • Commit<T>
Feature Flag Purpose
serde Enables serde's Serialize & Deserialize
bincode Enables bincode 2.0.0-rc.3's Encode & Decode
borsh Enables borsh's BorshSerialize & BorshDeserialize


The Minimum Supported Rust Version is 1.70.0.


~12K SLoC