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Used in 5 crates (4 directly)

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SeaQuery

🌊 A dynamic query builder for MySQL, Postgres and SQLite

crate docs build status

Built with 🔥 by 🌊🦀🐚

Introduction

SeaQuery is a query builder to help you construct dynamic SQL queries in Rust. You can construct expressions, queries and schema as abstract syntax trees using an ergonomic API. We support MySQL, Postgres and SQLite behind a common interface that aligns their behaviour where appropriate.

We provide integration for SQLx, postgres and rusqlite. See examples for usage.

This library is the foundation of SeaORM, an async & dynamic ORM for Rust.

Install

# Cargo.toml
[dependencies]
sea-query = "^0"

Usage

Table of Content

  1. Basics

    1. Iden
    2. Expression
    3. Condition
    4. Statement Builders
  2. Query Statement

    1. Query Select
    2. Query Insert
    3. Query Update
    4. Query Delete
  3. Schema Statement

    1. Table Create
    2. Table Alter
    3. Table Drop
    4. Table Rename
    5. Table Truncate
    6. Foreign Key Create
    7. Foreign Key Drop
    8. Index Create
    9. Index Drop

Motivation

Why would you want to use a dynamic query builder?

  1. Parameter bindings

One of the headaches when using raw SQL is parameter binding. With SeaQuery you can:

assert_eq!(
    Query::select()
        .column(Glyph::Image)
        .from(Glyph::Table)
        .and_where(Expr::col(Glyph::Image).like("A"))
        .and_where(Expr::col(Glyph::Id).is_in(vec![1, 2, 3]))
        .build(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    (
        r#"SELECT "image" FROM "glyph" WHERE "image" LIKE $1 AND "id" IN ($2, $3, $4)"#
            .to_owned(),
        Values(vec![
            Value::String(Some(Box::new("A".to_owned()))),
            Value::Int(Some(1)),
            Value::Int(Some(2)),
            Value::Int(Some(3))
        ])
    )
);
  1. Dynamic query

You can construct the query at runtime based on user inputs:

Query::select()
    .column(Char::Character)
    .from(Char::Table)
    .conditions(
        // some runtime condition
        true,
        // if condition is true then add the following condition
        |q| {
            q.and_where(Expr::col(Char::Id).eq(1));
        },
        // otherwise leave it as is
        |q| {},
    );

Iden

Iden is a trait for identifiers used in any query statement.

Commonly implemented by Enum where each Enum represents a table found in a database, and its variants include table name and column name.

[Iden::unquoted()] must be implemented to provide a mapping between Enum variants and its corresponding string value.

use sea_query::*;

// For example Character table with column id, character, font_size...
pub enum Character {
    Table,
    Id,
    FontId,
    FontSize,
}

// Mapping between Enum variant and its corresponding string value
impl Iden for Character {
    fn unquoted(&self, s: &mut dyn std::fmt::Write) {
        write!(
            s,
            "{}",
            match self {
                Self::Table => "character",
                Self::Id => "id",
                Self::FontId => "font_id",
                Self::FontSize => "font_size",
            }
        )
        .unwrap();
    }
}

If you're okay with running another procedural macro, you can activate the derive feature on the crate to save you some boilerplate. For more usage information, look at the derive examples.

use sea_query::Iden;

// This will implement Iden exactly as shown above
#[derive(Iden)]
enum Character {
    Table,
}
assert_eq!(Character::Table.to_string(), "character");

// You can also derive a unit struct
#[derive(Iden)]
struct Glyph;
assert_eq!(Glyph.to_string(), "glyph");

Expression

Use [Expr] to construct select, join, where and having expression in query.

assert_eq!(
    Query::select()
        .column(Char::Character)
        .from(Char::Table)
        .and_where(
            Expr::expr(Expr::col(Char::SizeW).add(1))
                .mul(2)
                .equals(Expr::expr(Expr::col(Char::SizeH).div(2)).sub(1))
        )
        .and_where(
            Expr::col(Char::SizeW).in_subquery(
                Query::select()
                    .expr(Expr::cust_with_values("ln(? ^ ?)", vec![2.4, 1.2]))
                    .take()
            )
        )
        .and_where(
            Expr::col(Char::Character)
                .like("D")
                .and(Expr::col(Char::Character).like("E"))
        )
        .to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    [
        r#"SELECT "character" FROM "character""#,
        r#"WHERE ("size_w" + 1) * 2 = ("size_h" / 2) - 1"#,
        r#"AND "size_w" IN (SELECT ln(2.4 ^ 1.2))"#,
        r#"AND (("character" LIKE 'D') AND ("character" LIKE 'E'))"#,
    ]
    .join(" ")
);

Condition

If you have complex conditions to express, you can use the [Condition] builder, usable for [ConditionalStatement::cond_where] and [SelectStatement::cond_having].

assert_eq!(
    Query::select()
        .column(Glyph::Id)
        .from(Glyph::Table)
        .cond_where(
            Cond::any()
                .add(
                    Cond::all()
                        .add(Expr::col(Glyph::Aspect).is_null())
                        .add(Expr::col(Glyph::Image).is_null())
                )
                .add(
                    Cond::all()
                        .add(Expr::col(Glyph::Aspect).is_in(vec![3, 4]))
                        .add(Expr::col(Glyph::Image).like("A%"))
                )
        )
        .to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    [
        r#"SELECT "id" FROM "glyph""#,
        r#"WHERE"#,
        r#"("aspect" IS NULL AND "image" IS NULL)"#,
        r#"OR"#,
        r#"("aspect" IN (3, 4) AND "image" LIKE 'A%')"#,
    ]
    .join(" ")
);

There is also the [any!] and [all!] macro at your convenience:

Query::select().cond_where(any![
    Expr::col(Glyph::Aspect).is_in(vec![3, 4]),
    all![
        Expr::col(Glyph::Aspect).is_null(),
        Expr::col(Glyph::Image).like("A%")
    ]
]);

Statement Builders

Statements are divided into 2 categories: Query and Schema, and to be serialized into SQL with [QueryStatementBuilder] and [SchemaStatementBuilder] respectively.

Schema statement has the following interface:

fn build<T: SchemaBuilder>(&self, schema_builder: T) -> String;

Query statement has the following interfaces:

fn build<T: QueryBuilder>(&self, query_builder: T) -> (String, Values);

fn to_string<T: QueryBuilder>(&self, query_builder: T) -> String;

build builds a SQL statement as string and parameters to be passed to the database driver through the binary protocol. This is the preferred way as it has less overhead and is more secure.

to_string builds a SQL statement as string with parameters injected. This is good for testing and debugging.

Query Select

let query = Query::select()
    .column(Char::Character)
    .column((Font::Table, Font::Name))
    .from(Char::Table)
    .left_join(Font::Table, Expr::tbl(Char::Table, Char::FontId).equals(Font::Table, Font::Id))
    .and_where(Expr::col(Char::SizeW).is_in(vec![3, 4]))
    .and_where(Expr::col(Char::Character).like("A%"))
    .to_owned();

assert_eq!(
    query.to_string(MysqlQueryBuilder),
    r#"SELECT `character`, `font`.`name` FROM `character` LEFT JOIN `font` ON `character`.`font_id` = `font`.`id` WHERE `size_w` IN (3, 4) AND `character` LIKE 'A%'"#
);
assert_eq!(
    query.to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    r#"SELECT "character", "font"."name" FROM "character" LEFT JOIN "font" ON "character"."font_id" = "font"."id" WHERE "size_w" IN (3, 4) AND "character" LIKE 'A%'"#
);
assert_eq!(
    query.to_string(SqliteQueryBuilder),
    r#"SELECT `character`, `font`.`name` FROM `character` LEFT JOIN `font` ON `character`.`font_id` = `font`.`id` WHERE `size_w` IN (3, 4) AND `character` LIKE 'A%'"#
);

Query Insert

let query = Query::insert()
    .into_table(Glyph::Table)
    .columns(vec![Glyph::Aspect, Glyph::Image])
    .values_panic(vec![5.15.into(), "12A".into()])
    .values_panic(vec![4.21.into(), "123".into()])
    .to_owned();

assert_eq!(
    query.to_string(MysqlQueryBuilder),
    r#"INSERT INTO `glyph` (`aspect`, `image`) VALUES (5.15, '12A'), (4.21, '123')"#
);
assert_eq!(
    query.to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    r#"INSERT INTO "glyph" ("aspect", "image") VALUES (5.15, '12A'), (4.21, '123')"#
);
assert_eq!(
    query.to_string(SqliteQueryBuilder),
    r#"INSERT INTO `glyph` (`aspect`, `image`) VALUES (5.15, '12A'), (4.21, '123')"#
);

Query Update

let query = Query::update()
    .table(Glyph::Table)
    .values(vec![
        (Glyph::Aspect, 1.23.into()),
        (Glyph::Image, "123".into()),
    ])
    .and_where(Expr::col(Glyph::Id).eq(1))
    .to_owned();

assert_eq!(
    query.to_string(MysqlQueryBuilder),
    r#"UPDATE `glyph` SET `aspect` = 1.23, `image` = '123' WHERE `id` = 1"#
);
assert_eq!(
    query.to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    r#"UPDATE "glyph" SET "aspect" = 1.23, "image" = '123' WHERE "id" = 1"#
);
assert_eq!(
    query.to_string(SqliteQueryBuilder),
    r#"UPDATE `glyph` SET `aspect` = 1.23, `image` = '123' WHERE `id` = 1"#
);

Query Delete

let query = Query::delete()
    .from_table(Glyph::Table)
    .cond_where(
        Cond::any()
            .add(Expr::col(Glyph::Id).lt(1))
            .add(Expr::col(Glyph::Id).gt(10)),
    )
    .to_owned();

assert_eq!(
    query.to_string(MysqlQueryBuilder),
    r#"DELETE FROM `glyph` WHERE `id` < 1 OR `id` > 10"#
);
assert_eq!(
    query.to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    r#"DELETE FROM "glyph" WHERE "id" < 1 OR "id" > 10"#
);
assert_eq!(
    query.to_string(SqliteQueryBuilder),
    r#"DELETE FROM `glyph` WHERE `id` < 1 OR `id` > 10"#
);

Table Create

let table = Table::create()
    .table(Char::Table)
    .if_not_exists()
    .col(ColumnDef::new(Char::Id).integer().not_null().auto_increment().primary_key())
    .col(ColumnDef::new(Char::FontSize).integer().not_null())
    .col(ColumnDef::new(Char::Character).string().not_null())
    .col(ColumnDef::new(Char::SizeW).integer().not_null())
    .col(ColumnDef::new(Char::SizeH).integer().not_null())
    .col(ColumnDef::new(Char::FontId).integer().default(Value::Int(None)))
    .foreign_key(
        ForeignKey::create()
            .name("FK_2e303c3a712662f1fc2a4d0aad6")
            .from(Char::Table, Char::FontId)
            .to(Font::Table, Font::Id)
            .on_delete(ForeignKeyAction::Cascade)
            .on_update(ForeignKeyAction::Cascade)
    )
    .to_owned();

assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(MysqlQueryBuilder),
    vec![
        r#"CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `character` ("#,
            r#"`id` int NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,"#,
            r#"`font_size` int NOT NULL,"#,
            r#"`character` varchar(255) NOT NULL,"#,
            r#"`size_w` int NOT NULL,"#,
            r#"`size_h` int NOT NULL,"#,
            r#"`font_id` int DEFAULT NULL,"#,
            r#"CONSTRAINT `FK_2e303c3a712662f1fc2a4d0aad6`"#,
                r#"FOREIGN KEY (`font_id`) REFERENCES `font` (`id`)"#,
                r#"ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE"#,
        r#")"#,
    ].join(" ")
);
assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    vec![
        r#"CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS "character" ("#,
            r#""id" serial NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,"#,
            r#""font_size" integer NOT NULL,"#,
            r#""character" varchar NOT NULL,"#,
            r#""size_w" integer NOT NULL,"#,
            r#""size_h" integer NOT NULL,"#,
            r#""font_id" integer DEFAULT NULL,"#,
            r#"CONSTRAINT "FK_2e303c3a712662f1fc2a4d0aad6""#,
                r#"FOREIGN KEY ("font_id") REFERENCES "font" ("id")"#,
                r#"ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE"#,
        r#")"#,
    ].join(" ")
);
assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(SqliteQueryBuilder),
    vec![
       r#"CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `character` ("#,
           r#"`id` integer NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT,"#,
           r#"`font_size` integer NOT NULL,"#,
           r#"`character` text NOT NULL,"#,
           r#"`size_w` integer NOT NULL,"#,
           r#"`size_h` integer NOT NULL,"#,
           r#"`font_id` integer DEFAULT NULL,"#,
           r#"FOREIGN KEY (`font_id`) REFERENCES `font` (`id`) ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE"#,
       r#")"#,
    ].join(" ")
);

Table Alter

let table = Table::alter()
    .table(Font::Table)
    .add_column(
        ColumnDef::new(Alias::new("new_col"))
            .integer()
            .not_null()
            .default(100),
    )
    .to_owned();

assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(MysqlQueryBuilder),
    r#"ALTER TABLE `font` ADD COLUMN `new_col` int NOT NULL DEFAULT 100"#
);
assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    r#"ALTER TABLE "font" ADD COLUMN "new_col" integer NOT NULL DEFAULT 100"#
);
assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(SqliteQueryBuilder),
    r#"ALTER TABLE `font` ADD COLUMN `new_col` integer NOT NULL DEFAULT 100"#,
);

Table Drop

let table = Table::drop()
    .table(Glyph::Table)
    .table(Char::Table)
    .to_owned();

assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(MysqlQueryBuilder),
    r#"DROP TABLE `glyph`, `character`"#
);
assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    r#"DROP TABLE "glyph", "character""#
);
assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(SqliteQueryBuilder),
    r#"DROP TABLE `glyph`, `character`"#
);

Table Rename

let table = Table::rename()
    .table(Font::Table, Alias::new("font_new"))
    .to_owned();

assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(MysqlQueryBuilder),
    r#"RENAME TABLE `font` TO `font_new`"#
);
assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    r#"ALTER TABLE "font" RENAME TO "font_new""#
);
assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(SqliteQueryBuilder),
    r#"ALTER TABLE `font` RENAME TO `font_new`"#
);

Table Truncate

let table = Table::truncate().table(Font::Table).to_owned();

assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(MysqlQueryBuilder),
    r#"TRUNCATE TABLE `font`"#
);
assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    r#"TRUNCATE TABLE "font""#
);
assert_eq!(
    table.to_string(SqliteQueryBuilder),
    r#"TRUNCATE TABLE `font`"#
);

Foreign Key Create

let foreign_key = ForeignKey::create()
    .name("FK_character_font")
    .from(Char::Table, Char::FontId)
    .to(Font::Table, Font::Id)
    .on_delete(ForeignKeyAction::Cascade)
    .on_update(ForeignKeyAction::Cascade)
    .to_owned();

assert_eq!(
    foreign_key.to_string(MysqlQueryBuilder),
    vec![
        r#"ALTER TABLE `character`"#,
        r#"ADD CONSTRAINT `FK_character_font`"#,
        r#"FOREIGN KEY (`font_id`) REFERENCES `font` (`id`)"#,
        r#"ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE"#,
    ]
    .join(" ")
);
assert_eq!(
    foreign_key.to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    vec![
        r#"ALTER TABLE "character" ADD CONSTRAINT "FK_character_font""#,
        r#"FOREIGN KEY ("font_id") REFERENCES "font" ("id")"#,
        r#"ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE"#,
    ]
    .join(" ")
);
// Sqlite does not support modification of foreign key constraints to existing tables

Foreign Key Drop

let foreign_key = ForeignKey::drop()
    .name("FK_character_font")
    .table(Char::Table)
    .to_owned();

assert_eq!(
    foreign_key.to_string(MysqlQueryBuilder),
    r#"ALTER TABLE `character` DROP FOREIGN KEY `FK_character_font`"#
);
assert_eq!(
    foreign_key.to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    r#"ALTER TABLE "character" DROP CONSTRAINT "FK_character_font""#
);
// Sqlite does not support modification of foreign key constraints to existing tables

Index Create

let index = Index::create()
    .name("idx-glyph-aspect")
    .table(Glyph::Table)
    .col(Glyph::Aspect)
    .to_owned();

assert_eq!(
    index.to_string(MysqlQueryBuilder),
    r#"CREATE INDEX `idx-glyph-aspect` ON `glyph` (`aspect`)"#
);
assert_eq!(
    index.to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    r#"CREATE INDEX "idx-glyph-aspect" ON "glyph" ("aspect")"#
);
assert_eq!(
    index.to_string(SqliteQueryBuilder),
    r#"CREATE INDEX `idx-glyph-aspect` ON `glyph` (`aspect`)"#
);

Index Drop

let index = Index::drop()
    .name("idx-glyph-aspect")
    .table(Glyph::Table)
    .to_owned();

assert_eq!(
    index.to_string(MysqlQueryBuilder),
    r#"DROP INDEX `idx-glyph-aspect` ON `glyph`"#
);
assert_eq!(
    index.to_string(PostgresQueryBuilder),
    r#"DROP INDEX "idx-glyph-aspect""#
);
assert_eq!(
    index.to_string(SqliteQueryBuilder),
    r#"DROP INDEX `idx-glyph-aspect` ON `glyph`"#
);

License

Licensed under either of

at your option.

Contribution

Unless you explicitly state otherwise, any contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the work by you, as defined in the Apache-2.0 license, shall be dual licensed as above, without any additional terms or conditions.

Dependencies

~0.4–2.5MB
~53K SLoC