#json-schema #serde #rust

macro schemars_derive

Macros for #[derive(JsonSchema)], for use with schemars

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0.8.3 Apr 5, 2021
0.8.2 Mar 27, 2021
0.8.0 Sep 27, 2020
0.8.0-alpha-4 Jun 12, 2020
0.5.0 Oct 30, 2019

#27 in Procedural macros

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Used in 8 crates (2 directly)

MIT license

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Schemars

CI Build Crates.io Docs rustc 1.37+

Generate JSON Schema documents from Rust code

Basic Usage

If you don't really care about the specifics, the easiest way to generate a JSON schema for your types is to #[derive(JsonSchema)] and use the schema_for! macro. All fields of the type must also implement JsonSchema - Schemars implements this for many standard library types.

use schemars::{schema_for, JsonSchema};

#[derive(JsonSchema)]
pub struct MyStruct {
    pub my_int: i32,
    pub my_bool: bool,
    pub my_nullable_enum: Option<MyEnum>,
}

#[derive(JsonSchema)]
pub enum MyEnum {
    StringNewType(String),
    StructVariant { floats: Vec<f32> },
}

let schema = schema_for!(MyStruct);
println!("{}", serde_json::to_string_pretty(&schema).unwrap());
Click to see the output JSON schema...
{
  "$schema": "http://json-schema.org/draft-07/schema#",
  "title": "MyStruct",
  "type": "object",
  "required": [
    "my_bool",
    "my_int"
  ],
  "properties": {
    "my_bool": {
      "type": "boolean"
    },
    "my_int": {
      "type": "integer",
      "format": "int32"
    },
    "my_nullable_enum": {
      "anyOf": [
        {
          "$ref": "#/definitions/MyEnum"
        },
        {
          "type": "null"
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "definitions": {
    "MyEnum": {
      "anyOf": [
        {
          "type": "object",
          "required": [
            "StringNewType"
          ],
          "properties": {
            "StringNewType": {
              "type": "string"
            }
          },
          "additionalProperties": false
        },
        {
          "type": "object",
          "required": [
            "StructVariant"
          ],
          "properties": {
            "StructVariant": {
              "type": "object",
              "required": [
                "floats"
              ],
              "properties": {
                "floats": {
                  "type": "array",
                  "items": {
                    "type": "number",
                    "format": "float"
                  }
                }
              }
            }
          },
          "additionalProperties": false
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

Serde Compatibility

One of the main aims of this library is compatibility with Serde. Any generated schema should match how serde_json would serialize/deserialize to/from JSON. To support this, Schemars will check for any #[serde(...)] attributes on types that derive JsonSchema, and adjust the generated schema accordingly.

use schemars::{schema_for, JsonSchema};
use serde::{Deserialize, Serialize};

#[derive(Deserialize, Serialize, JsonSchema)]
#[serde(rename_all = "camelCase", deny_unknown_fields)]
pub struct MyStruct {
    #[serde(rename = "myNumber")]
    pub my_int: i32,
    pub my_bool: bool,
    #[serde(default)]
    pub my_nullable_enum: Option<MyEnum>,
}

#[derive(Deserialize, Serialize, JsonSchema)]
#[serde(untagged)]
pub enum MyEnum {
    StringNewType(String),
    StructVariant { floats: Vec<f32> },
}

let schema = schema_for!(MyStruct);
println!("{}", serde_json::to_string_pretty(&schema).unwrap());
Click to see the output JSON schema...
{
  "$schema": "http://json-schema.org/draft-07/schema#",
  "title": "MyStruct",
  "type": "object",
  "required": [
    "myBool",
    "myNumber"
  ],
  "properties": {
    "myBool": {
      "type": "boolean"
    },
    "myNullableEnum": {
      "default": null,
      "anyOf": [
        {
          "$ref": "#/definitions/MyEnum"
        },
        {
          "type": "null"
        }
      ]
    },
    "myNumber": {
      "type": "integer",
      "format": "int32"
    }
  },
  "additionalProperties": false,
  "definitions": {
    "MyEnum": {
      "anyOf": [
        {
          "type": "string"
        },
        {
          "type": "object",
          "required": [
            "floats"
          ],
          "properties": {
            "floats": {
              "type": "array",
              "items": {
                "type": "number",
                "format": "float"
              }
            }
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

#[serde(...)] attributes can be overriden using #[schemars(...)] attributes, which behave identically (e.g. #[schemars(rename_all = "camelCase")]). You may find this useful if you want to change the generated schema without affecting Serde's behaviour, or if you're just not using Serde.

Schema from Example Value

If you want a schema for a type that can't/doesn't implement JsonSchema, but does implement serde::Serialize, then you can generate a JSON schema from a value of that type. However, this schema will generally be less precise than if the type implemented JsonSchema - particularly when it involves enums, since schemars will not make any assumptions about the structure of an enum based on a single variant.

use schemars::schema_for_value;
use serde::Serialize;

#[derive(Serialize)]
pub struct MyStruct {
    pub my_int: i32,
    pub my_bool: bool,
    pub my_nullable_enum: Option<MyEnum>,
}

#[derive(Serialize)]
pub enum MyEnum {
    StringNewType(String),
    StructVariant { floats: Vec<f32> },
}

let schema = schema_for_value!(MyStruct {
    my_int: 123,
    my_bool: true,
    my_nullable_enum: Some(MyEnum::StringNewType("foo".to_string()))
});
println!("{}", serde_json::to_string_pretty(&schema).unwrap());
Click to see the output JSON schema...
{
  "$schema": "http://json-schema.org/draft-07/schema#",
  "title": "MyStruct",
  "examples": [
    {
      "my_bool": true,
      "my_int": 123,
      "my_nullable_enum": {
        "StringNewType": "foo"
      }
    }
  ],
  "type": "object",
  "properties": {
    "my_bool": {
      "type": "boolean"
    },
    "my_int": {
      "type": "integer"
    },
    "my_nullable_enum": true
  }
}

Feature Flags

  • derive (enabled by default) - provides #[derive(JsonSchema)] macro
  • impl_json_schema - implements JsonSchema for Schemars types themselves
  • preserve_order - keep the order of struct fields in Schema and SchemaObject

Optional Dependencies

Schemars can implement JsonSchema on types from several popular crates, enabled via optional dependencies (dependency versions are shown in brackets):

Dependencies

~0.5–0.9MB
~22K SLoC