10 releases
0.4.2 | Jul 3, 2024 |
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0.4.1 | May 21, 2024 |
0.3.0 | Mar 10, 2024 |
0.2.5 | Jan 11, 2024 |
0.2.0 | Dec 30, 2022 |
#419 in Network programming
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Used in 5 crates
(4 directly)
160KB
3K
SLoC
Prefix-Trie
This crate provides a simple prefix tree for IP prefixes. Any lookup performs longest-prefix match.
Comparison with related projects
ip_network_table-deps-treebitmap
provides an IP lookup table, similar to PrefixMap
.
The following compares the two approaches in the case of dense or sparse maps. Each test case
performs 100'000 modifications or lookups. However, the dense cases randomly pick any IPv4
address, while the sparse case only picks 20 different IPv4 addresses. See benches/benchmark.rs
for more details.
Operation | Mode | PrefixMap |
treebitmap |
factor |
---|---|---|---|---|
Insert & Remove | dense | 31.78ms | 47.52ms | ~1.5x |
Lookup | dense | 32.36ms | 8.409ms | ~0.25x |
Insert & Remove | sparse | 6.645ms | 7.329ms | ~1.1x |
Lookup | sparse | 8.394ms | 12.30ms | ~1.5x |
In addition, prefix-trie
includes a PrefixSet
analogous to std::collections::HashSet
,
including union, intersection and difference operations that are implemented as simultaneous
tree traversals. Further, prefix-trie
has an interface similar to std::collections
, and
includes methods for accessing all children of a node. Finally, it offers a general
longest-prefix match that is not limited to individual addresses.
Description of the Tree
The tree is structured as follows: Each node consists of a prefix, a container for a potential
value (Option
), and two optional children. Adding a new child, or traversing into the tree is
done as follows: we look at the most significant bit that is not part of the prefix
itself. If it is not set, then we take the left branch, and otherwise, we take the right one.
Traversals
Any iteration over all elements in the tree is implemented as a graph traversal that will yield
elements in lexicographic order (with the exception of mutable iteration of the
PrefixMap
). This also includes the iteration over the union, intersection, or difference of
two PrefixSet
s, which are implemented as simultaneous tree traversals. Further, calling
retain
will also traverse the tree only once, removing elements during the traversal.
Operations on the tree
There are several operations one can do on the tree. Regular inserts are handled using the
Entry
structure. An Entry
is a pointer to a location in the tree to either insert a value or
modify an existing one. Removals however are different.
The following are the computational complexities of the functions, where n
is the number of
elements in the tree.
Operation | Complexity |
---|---|
entry , insert |
O(log n) |
remove , remove_keep_tree |
O(log n) |
remove_children (calling drop on T ) |
O(n) |
get , get_lpm , get_mut |
O(log n) |
retain |
O(n) |
clear (calling drop on T ) |
O(n) |
Operations on map::Entry |
O(1) |
len and is_empty |
O(1) |
There are three kinds of removals you! can do:
PrefixMap::remove
will remove an entry from the tree and modify the tree structure as if the value was never inserted before.PrefixMap::remove
will always exactly revert the operation ofPrefixMap::insert
. When only calling this function to remove elements, you are guaranteed that the tree structure is indistinguishable to a different tree where you only inserted elements.PrefixMap::remove_children
will remove all entries that are contained within the given prefix. This operation will search for the node with the shortest prefix length that is contained within the given prefix and remove it, including all of its children.PrefixMap::remove_keep_tree
will not change anything in the tree structure. It will only remove a value from a node. As soon as you callremove_keep_tree
once on a tree structure, the tree will no longer be optimal.
TODO
Migrate to a TreeBitMap, described by W. Eatherton, Z. Dittia, G. Varghes.
Dependencies
~200–455KB