#vec #binary-tree #storage #dictionary #insertion #order #map


Fast, vector-based map implementation that preserves insertion order

2 releases

0.0.1 Apr 20, 2020
0.0.0 Apr 20, 2020

⚠️ Issues reported

41 downloads per month
Used in xxlib


553 lines


Fast, vector-based map implementation that preserves insertion order.

  • Map is implemented as a binary tree over a Vec for storage, with only two extra words per entry for book-keeping on 64-bit architectures.
  • A fast hash function with good random distribution is used to balance the tree. Ordnung makes no guarantees that the tree will be perfectly balanced, but key lookup should be approaching O(log n) in most cases.
  • Tree traversal is always breadth-first and happens over a single continuous block of memory, which makes it cache friendly.
  • Iterating over all entries is always O(n), same as Vec<(K, V)>.
  • There are no buckets, so there is no need to re-bucket things when growing the map.

When should you use this?

  • You need to preserve insertion order of the map.
  • Iterating over the map is very performance sensitive.
  • Your average map has fewer than 100 entries.
  • You have no a priori knowledge about the final size of the map when you start creating it.
  • Removing items from the map is very, very rare.


  • All charts show time in ns, smaller is better.
  • All benchmarks were compiled with -C target-cpu=native to take advantage of aHash.

Map construction

While insertion in Ordnung is getting progressively slower as the size of the map grows, growing a HashMap is also getting progressively slower due to re-bucketing costs.

Map construction benchmark

Map construction with preallocated memory

With preallocated memory, Ordnung is still faster for a small number of entries.

Map construction benchmark with preallocated memory

Average time to find value by key

As the size of the map doubles, Ordnung incurs a roughly constant jump in cost due to its ~O(log n) nature, however it still remains competitive with fast HashMaps.

Map find benchmark


This code is distributed under the terms of both the MIT license and the Apache License (Version 2.0), choose whatever works for you.