3 unstable releases

0.3.1 May 28, 2019
0.3.0 May 27, 2019
0.2.0 May 17, 2019
0.1.0 Mar 27, 2019

#994 in Data structures

Download history 8/week @ 2024-02-26 74/week @ 2024-04-01

74 downloads per month
Used in lumberjack-utils



Crate Build Status


Read and process constituency trees in various formats.


  • From crates.io:
cargo install lumberjack-utils
  • From GitHub:
cargo install --git https://github.com/sebpuetz/lumberjack

Usage as standalone:

  • Convert treebank in NEGRA export 4 format to bracketed TueBa V2 format
lumberjack-conversion --input_file treebank.negra --input_format negra \
    --output_format tueba --output_file treebank.tueba --projectivize
  • Retain only root node, NPs and PPs and print to simple bracketed format:
echo "NP PP" > filter_set.txt
lumberjack-conversion --input_file treebank.simple --input_format simple \
    --output_format tueba --output_file treebank.filtered \
    --filter filter_set.txt
  • Convert from treebank in simple bracketed to CONLLX format and annotate parent tags of terminals as features.
lumberjack-conversion --input_file treebank.simple --input_format  simple\
    --output_format conllx --output_file treebank.conll --parent 
  • Modifications in the following order:
  1. Reattach all terminals with part-of-speech starting with $ to the root node
  2. Remove all nonterminals except the root, Ss, NPs, PPs and VPs
  3. Assign unique identifiers based on the closest S to terminals
  4. Insert nodes with label label above terminals that aren't dominated by NP or PP
  5. Annotate label of parent node on terminals.
  6. Print to CONLLX format with annotations.
echo "S VP NP PP" > filter_set.txt
echo "NP PP" > insert_set.txt
echo "S" > id_set.txt
lumberjack-conversion --input_file treebank.simple --input_format simple\
    --output_format conllx --insertion_set insert_set.txt \
    --insertion_label label --id_set id_set.txt --reattach $\
    --parent parent --output_file treebank.conllx

Usage as rust library:

  • read and projectivize trees from NEGRA format and print to simple bracketed format
use std::io::{BufReader, File};

use lumberjack::io::{NegraReader, PTBFormat};
use lumberjack::Projectivize;

fn print_negra(path: &str) {
    let file = File::open(path).unwrap();
    let reader = NegraReader::new(BufReader::new(file));
    for tree in reader {
        let mut tree = tree.unwrap();
        println!("{}", PTBFormat::Simple.tree_to_string(&tree).unwrap());
  • filter non-terminal nodes from trees in a treebank and print to simple bracketed format:
use lumberjack::{io::PTBFormat, Tree, TreeOps, util::LabelSet};

fn filter_nodes(iter: impl Iterator<Item=Tree>, set: LabelSet) {
    for mut tree in iter {
        tree.filter_nonterminals(|tree, nt| set.matches(tree[nt].label())).unwrap();
        println!("{}", PTBFormat::Simple.tree_to_string(&tree).unwrap());
  • convert treebank in simple bracketed format to CONLLX with constituency structure encoded in the features field
use conllx::graph::Sentence;
use lumberjack::io::Encode;
use lumberjack::{Tree, TreeOps, UnaryChains};

fn to_conllx(iter: impl Iterator<Item=Tree>) {
    for mut tree in iter {
        println!("{}", Sentence::from(&tree));    


~85K SLoC