#analysis #data #ai #anomalies


An implementation of the HOTSAX and HOTSAX based discord discovery algorithms

9 unstable releases (3 breaking)

0.4.0 Apr 6, 2020
0.3.0 Apr 4, 2020
0.2.0 Mar 16, 2020
0.1.5 Mar 16, 2020

#1365 in Algorithms

27 downloads per month

MPL-2.0 license

847 lines


An implementation of the HOTSAX discord discovery algorithm.

This crate contains an implementation of the HOT SAX algorithm, and the brute force algorithm, as proposed by Keogh et al.. It also includes the HS-Squeezer algorithm, since it offers useful optimizations, while still being heavily based on the HOT SAX algorithm. However, from testing, the performance of this implementation is similar or worse than HOT SAX. If you find any possible optimizations, please open an issue.

During the implementation some other functions had to be made, such as paa, znorm, and gaussian. These functions are exposed, due to their utility apart from being used in HOT SAX.

The code is well commented in order to explain the implementation, in the case that people want to learn how the HOT SAX algorithm works by looking at an implementation. If a part is vaguely commented, feel free to leave an issue.

Note that only Float vectors are supported. If your data is made up of integers, you need to convert it to float first.

Example of use

use std::error::Error;
use plotly::{Plot, Scatter};

// Parses the CSV file from the dataset.
let mut rdr = csv::ReaderBuilder::new()

// Deserialize CSV data into a vector of floats.
let mut data : Vec<f64> = Vec::new();
for result in rdr.deserialize() {

// Prepare a plot
let mut plot = Plot::new();

// Retrieve the largest discord. This should approx. match the one found in the paper.
// It uses the same settings: a discord size of 256 and a=3.
// word_size was assumed to be 3.
let discord_size = 256;
let discord = hotsax::Anomaly::with(&data, discord_size)
    .use_slice(1000..)      // Skips the beginning due to an abnormality.
    .find_largest_discord() // Finds the largest discord in the subslice.
    .unwrap().1;            // Only gets the location.

// Plot the entire dataset as a blue color.
let trace1 = Scatter::new((1..=data.len()).collect(), data.clone())

// Plot the discord itself as a red color.
let trace2 = Scatter::new((discord+1..discord+discord_size+1).collect(), data[discord..discord+128].to_vec())

// Add traces to the plot.

// Shows the plot to verify.


To show the accuracy of the implementation, the algorithm was run on the same dataset as used in the paper itself. Specifically, data from Figure 6 and Figure 7 (as can be retrieved here, or from the data/ directory of this repository as TEK16.CSV and TEK17.CSV respectively.

The algorithm was ran with a word size of 3, an alphabet size of 3, and a discord size of 128.

Below show the results of this algorithm, compared with the figures shown in the paper.

Figure 6 hotsax on TEK16.CSV Figure 7 hotsax on TEK17.CSV


~16K SLoC