#crypto #ethers #ethereum #web3 #celo

ethers-middleware

Middleware implementations for the ethers-rs crate

32 releases (15 stable)

2.0.13 Jan 30, 2024
2.0.11 Nov 16, 2023
2.0.10 Sep 7, 2023
2.0.8 Jul 15, 2023
0.2.2 Mar 3, 2021

#1431 in Magic Beans

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161,465 downloads per month
Used in 157 crates (7 directly)

MIT/Apache

1.5MB
34K SLoC

ethers-middleware

Your ethers application interacts with the blockchain through a Provider abstraction. Provider is a special type of Middleware that can be composed with others to obtain a layered architecture. This approach promotes "Open Closed Principle", "Single Responsibility" and composable patterns. The building process happens in a wrapping fashion, and starts from a Provider being the first element in the stack. This process continues having new middlewares being pushed on top of a layered data structure.

For more information, please refer to the book.

Warning

This library is in the process of being deprecated. See #2667 for more information.

Available Middleware

  • Signer: Signs transactions locally, with a private key or a hardware wallet.
  • Nonce Manager: Manages nonces locally. Allows to sign multiple consecutive transactions without waiting for them to hit the mempool.
  • Gas Escalator: Bumps transactions gas price in the background to avoid getting them stuck in the memory pool. A GasEscalatorMiddleware supports different escalation strategies (see GasEscalator) and bump frequencies (see Frequency).
  • Gas Oracle: Allows getting your gas price estimates from places other than eth_gasPrice, including REST based gas stations (i.e. Etherscan, ETH Gas Station etc.).
  • Transformer: Allows intercepting and transforming a transaction to be broadcasted via a proxy wallet, e.g. DSProxy.

Examples

Each Middleware implements the trait MiddlewareBuilder. This trait helps a developer to compose a custom Middleware stack.

The following example shows how to build a composed Middleware starting from a Provider:

# use ethers_providers::{Middleware, Provider, Http};
# use ethers_signers::{LocalWallet, Signer};
# use ethers_middleware::{gas_oracle::GasNow, MiddlewareBuilder};
let key = "fdb33e2105f08abe41a8ee3b758726a31abdd57b7a443f470f23efce853af169";
let signer = key.parse::<LocalWallet>()?;
let address = signer.address();
let gas_oracle = GasNow::new();

let provider = Provider::<Http>::try_from("http://localhost:8545")?
    .gas_oracle(gas_oracle)
    .with_signer(signer)
    .nonce_manager(address); // Outermost layer
# Ok::<_, Box<dyn std::error::Error>>(())

The wrap_into function can be used to wrap Middleware layers explicitly. This is useful when pushing Middlewares not directly handled by the builder interface.

# use ethers_providers::{Middleware, Provider, Http};
# use std::convert::TryFrom;
# use ethers_signers::{LocalWallet, Signer};
# use ethers_middleware::{*,gas_escalator::*,gas_oracle::*};
let key = "fdb33e2105f08abe41a8ee3b758726a31abdd57b7a443f470f23efce853af169";
let signer = key.parse::<LocalWallet>()?;
let address = signer.address();
let escalator = GeometricGasPrice::new(1.125, 60_u64, None::<u64>);

let provider = Provider::<Http>::try_from("http://localhost:8545")?
    .wrap_into(|p| GasEscalatorMiddleware::new(p, escalator, Frequency::PerBlock))
    .wrap_into(|p| SignerMiddleware::new(p, signer))
    .wrap_into(|p| GasOracleMiddleware::new(p, GasNow::new()))
    .wrap_into(|p| NonceManagerMiddleware::new(p, address)); // Outermost layer
# Ok::<_, Box<dyn std::error::Error>>(())

A Middleware stack can be also constructed manually. This is achieved by explicitly wrapping layers.

# use ethers_providers::{Provider, Http};
# use ethers_signers::{LocalWallet, Signer};
# use ethers_middleware::{
#     gas_escalator::{GasEscalatorMiddleware, GeometricGasPrice, Frequency},
#     gas_oracle::{GasOracleMiddleware, GasCategory, GasNow},
#     signer::SignerMiddleware,
#     nonce_manager::NonceManagerMiddleware,
# };
// Start the stack
let provider = Provider::<Http>::try_from("http://localhost:8545")?;

// Escalate gas prices
let escalator = GeometricGasPrice::new(1.125, 60u64, None::<u64>);
let provider = GasEscalatorMiddleware::new(provider, escalator, Frequency::PerBlock);

// Sign transactions with a private key
let key = "fdb33e2105f08abe41a8ee3b758726a31abdd57b7a443f470f23efce853af169";
let signer = key.parse::<LocalWallet>()?;
let address = signer.address();
let provider = SignerMiddleware::new(provider, signer);

// Use GasNow as the gas oracle
let gas_oracle = GasNow::new();
let provider = GasOracleMiddleware::new(provider, gas_oracle);

// Manage nonces locally
let provider = NonceManagerMiddleware::new(provider, address);
# Ok::<_, Box<dyn std::error::Error>>(())

Dependencies

~24–41MB
~756K SLoC