28 stable releases

3.1.2 Jul 10, 2022
3.1.1 Dec 28, 2021
3.1.0 Nov 6, 2021
3.0.2 Apr 4, 2021
1.1.5 Dec 29, 2018

#1227 in Network programming

Download history 2/week @ 2022-08-08 3/week @ 2022-08-15 29/week @ 2022-08-22 1/week @ 2022-08-29 57/week @ 2022-09-05 30/week @ 2022-09-12 4/week @ 2022-09-19 3/week @ 2022-09-26 4/week @ 2022-10-03 2/week @ 2022-10-24 29/week @ 2022-10-31 26/week @ 2022-11-07 2/week @ 2022-11-14 3/week @ 2022-11-21

61 downloads per month

BSD-3-Clause

79KB
2K SLoC

doh-client

doh-client is a DNS over HTTPS client, which opens a local UDP (DNS) port and forwards all DNS queries to a remote HTTP/2.0 server. By default, the client will connect to the Cloudflare DNS service. It uses Tokio for all asynchronous IO operations and Rustls to connect to the HTTPS server. The client uses a private HTTP cache (see RFC 7234) to increase the performance if the --cache-size is not zero. Build status Dependency status Latest version License

Getting Started

doh-client is written in Rust. To build it you need the Rust compiler and build system cargo.

Build

$ cargo build

Or to build it as a release build:

$ cargo build --release

On default, the feature socks5 proxy(RFC 1928) is enabled. To build the client without the feature use the following command:

$ cargo build --no-default-features

Run

To run the binary, you need one positional argument, if native-certs feature is not active (see Usage).

$ ./doh-client /path/to/the/ca/file.pem

For example, if you use Arch Linux then the following command uses the system cert store:

# ./doh-client /etc/ca-certificates/extracted/tls-ca-bundle.pem

Linux (systemd)

To run the doh-client as a daemon and without root under Linux with systemd as init system follow the instructions. This example will connect to the Cloudflare DNS service.

  1. Build the binary (see Build).
  2. Copy the binary to /usr/bin as root:
    # cp target/release/doh-client /usr/bin/
    
  3. Copy the config files to /etc/systemd/system/ as root:
    # cp doh-client.service doh-client.socket /etc/systemd/system
    
    If the location of the binary is different from above then change the path in doh-client.service under ExecStart. In the config file doh-client.service the path of the CA file is set to /etc/ca-certificates/extracted/tls-ca-bundle.pem, adjust the path before going further (The path should be correct if you use Arch Linux).
  4. Reload systemd manager configuration:
    # systemctl daemon-reload
    
  5. Enable the doh-client as a daemon:
    # systemctl enable doh-client
    
  6. Reboot the system or start the daemon manually:
    # systemctl start doh-client
    
  7. Adjust the /etc/resolv.conf by adding the following line:
    nameserver 127.0.0.1
    
Additional

If AppArmor is used then the doh-client profile from the repository can be applied to AppArmor.

  1. Copy the profile file usr.bin.doh-client to /etc/apparmor.d/ as root:
    # cp usr.bin.doh-client /etc/apparmor.d/
    
    If the location of the CA file is different from /etc/ca-certificates/extracted/tls-ca-bundle.pem then change the path in usr.bin.doh-client.
  2. Reboot the system or reload all profiles:
    # systemctl restart apparmor.service
    
Arch Linux

There is an AUR package available.

Mac OS (launchd)

To run the doh-client as a daemon and without root under Mac OS with launchd as init system. This example will connect to the Cloudflare DNS service.

  1. Build the binary (see Build).
  2. Copy the binary to /usr/local/bin as root:
    # cp target/release/doh-client /usr/local/bin/
    
  3. Copy the launchd config files to /Library/LaunchDaemons/ as root:
    # cp com.doh-client.daemon.plist /Library/LaunchDaemons
    
    If the location of the binary is different from above then change the path in com.doh-client.daemon.plist under ProgramArguments. In the config file com.doh-client.daemon.plist the path of the CA file is set to /usr/local/share/doh-client/DigiCert_Global_Root_CA.pem, download the pem file under the following link. Before copy the pem file to /usr/local/share/doh-client/, make the directory doh-client with mkdir.
  4. Load and start the config file as follow:
    # launchctl load -w /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.doh-client.daemon.plist
    
  5. Adjust the /etc/resolv.conf by adding the following line:
    nameserver 127.0.0.1
    

Usage

doh-client has one required positional argument, CAFILE which sets the path to a pem file, which contains the trusted CA certificates.

$ ./doh-client --help
DNS over HTTPS client 3.1.2
LinkTed <link.ted@mailbox.org>
Open a local UDP (DNS) port and forward DNS queries to a remote HTTP/2.0 server.
By default, the client will connect to the Cloudflare DNS service.
This binary uses the env_logger as logger implementations.
See https://github.com/sebasmagri/env_logger/

USAGE:
    doh-client [OPTIONS] [CAFILE]

ARGS:
    <CAFILE>    The path to the pem file, which contains the trusted CA certificates
                If no path is given then the platform's native certificate store will be used

OPTIONS:
    -c, --cache-size <UNSIGNED LONG>
            The size of the private HTTP cache
            If the size is 0 then the private HTTP cache is not used (ignores cache-control)
            [default: 1024]

        --cache-fallback
            Use expired cache entries if no response is received from the server

        --client-auth-certs <CERTSFILE>
            The path to the pem file, which contains the certificates for the client authentication

        --client-auth-key <KEYFILE>
            The path to the pem file, which contains the key for the client authentication

    -d, --domain <Domain>
            The domain name of the remote server [default: cloudflare-dns.com]

    -g, --get
            Use the GET method for the HTTP/2.0 request

    -h, --help
            Print help information

    -l, --listen-addr <Addr:Port>
            Listen address [default: 127.0.0.1:53]

        --listen-activation
            Use file descriptor 3 under Unix as UDP socket or launch_activate_socket() under Mac OS

    -p, --path <STRING>
            The path of the URI [default: dns-query]

        --proxy-credentials <Username:Password>
            The credentials for the proxy

        --proxy-host <Addr/Domain:Port>
            Socks5 or HTTP CONNECT proxy host (see below)

        --proxy-https-cafile <CAFILE>
            The path to the pem file, which contains the trusted CA certificates for the https proxy
            If no path is given then the platform's native certificate store will be used

        --proxy-https-domain <Domain>
            The domain name of the https proxy

        --proxy-scheme <proxy-scheme>
            The protocol of the proxy [possible values: socks5, socks5h, http, https]

    -r, --remote-host <Addr/Domain:Port>
            Remote address/domain to the DOH server (see below) [default: 1.1.1.1:443]

        --retries <UNSIGNED INT>
            The number of retries to connect to the remote server [default: 3]

    -t, --timeout <UNSIGNED LONG>
            The time in seconds after that the connection would be closed if no response is received
            from the server [default: 2]

    -V, --version
            Print version information

CAUTION: If a domain name is used for a <Addr/Domain:Port> value instead of an IP address the system
resolver will be used to resolve the IP address of the domain name. If the `doh-client` is
configured as system resolver, then it will NOT WORK. It is recommended to always use an IP address
for <Addr/Domain:Port> values.

Cache performance

To demonstrate that the private HTTP cache (see RFC 7234) increases the performance of the client, make a request to github.com:

$ dig github.com +nocookie

; <<>> DiG 9.13.5 <<>> github.com +nocookie
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 19752
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 2, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 1

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 1452
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;github.com.            IN  A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
github.com.     8   IN  A   192.30.253.112
github.com.     8   IN  A   192.30.253.113

;; Query time: 35 msec
;; SERVER: 127.0.0.1#53(127.0.0.1)
;; WHEN: Sa Jan 05 20:00:20 CET 2019
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 71

The query took 35 milliseconds. If the request is made again (quick, before the response is removed from the cache):

$ dig github.com +nocookie

; <<>> DiG 9.13.5 <<>> github.com +nocookie
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 52653
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 2, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 1

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 1452
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;github.com.            IN  A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
github.com.     8   IN  A   192.30.253.112
github.com.     8   IN  A   192.30.253.113

;; Query time: 0 msec
;; SERVER: 127.0.0.1#53(127.0.0.1)
;; WHEN: Sa Jan 05 20:00:21 CET 2019
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 71

Now, the query took 0 milliseconds, because it was cached.

How long is a DNS request and response in the cache?

  1. If control-cache: max-age=XXX is present in the HTTP header then this value is used. For example, if the server responds with a control-cache: max-age=100 then the DNS request and response is in the cache for 100 seconds. After 100 seconds, the client will forward the request to the server again.
  2. If control-cache: max-age=XXX is not present then the smallest TTL in the answer, authority and additional section of the DNS response is used.

License

This project is licensed under the BSD-3-Clause license.

Contribution

Any contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in doh-client by you, shall be licensed as BSD-3-Clause, without any additional terms or conditions.

Dependencies

~14–23MB
~474K SLoC