#cbor

no-std dev ciborium-ll

Low-level CBOR codec primitives

1 unstable release

Uses new Rust 2021

0.2.0 Nov 21, 2021

#227 in Embedded development

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Used in 477 crates (via ciborium)

Apache-2.0

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ciborium-ll

Low level CBOR parsing tools

This crate contains low-level types for encoding and decoding items in CBOR. This crate is usable in both no_std and no_alloc environments. To understand how this crate works, first we will look at the structure of a CBOR item on the wire.

Anatomy of a CBOR Item

This is a brief anatomy of a CBOR item on the wire.

+------------+-----------+
|            |           |
|   Major    |   Minor   |
|  (3bits)   |  (5bits)  |
|            |           |
+------------+-----------+
^                        ^
|                        |
+-----+            +-----+
      |            |
      |            |
      +----------------------------+--------------+
      |            |               |              |
      |   Prefix   |     Affix     |    Suffix    |
      |  (1 byte)  |  (0-8 bytes)  |  (0+ bytes)  |
      |            |               |              |
      +------------+---------------+--------------+

      |                            |              |
      +------------+---------------+--------------+
                   |                       |
                   v                       v

                 Header                   Body

The ciborium crate works by providing the Decoder and Encoder types which provide input and output for a CBOR header (see: Header). From there, you can either handle the body yourself or use the provided utility functions.

For more information on the CBOR format, see RFC 7049.

Decoding

In order to decode CBOR, you will create a Decoder from a reader. The decoder instance will allow you to Decoder::pull() Header instances from the input.

Most CBOR items are fully contained in their headers and therefore have no body. These items can be evaluated directly from the Header instance.

Bytes and text items have a body but do not contain child items. Since both bytes and text values may be segmented, parsing them can be a bit tricky. Therefore, we provide helper functions to parse these types. See Decoder::bytes() and Decoder::text() for more details.

Array and map items have a body which contains child items. These can be parsed by simply doing Decoder::pull() to parse the child items.

Example

use ciborium_ll::{Decoder, Header};
use ciborium_io::Read as _;

let input = b"\x6dHello, World!";
let mut decoder = Decoder::from(&input[..]);
let mut chunks = 0;

match decoder.pull().unwrap() {
    Header::Text(len) => {
        let mut segments = decoder.text(len);
        while let Some(mut segment) = segments.pull().unwrap() {
            let mut buffer = [0u8; 7];
            while let Some(chunk) = segment.pull(&mut buffer[..]).unwrap() {
                 match chunk {
                     "Hello, " if chunks == 0 => chunks = 1,
                     "World!" if chunks == 1 => chunks = 2,
                     _ => panic!("received unexpected chunk"),
                 }
            }
        }
    }

    _ => panic!("received unexpected value"),
}

assert_eq!(chunks, 2);

Encoding

To encode values to CBOR, create an Encoder from a writer. The encoder instance provides the Encoder::push() method to write a Header value to the wire. CBOR item bodies can be written directly.

For bytes and text, there are the Encoder::bytes() and Encoder::text() utility functions, respectively, which will properly segment the output on the wire for you.

Example

use ciborium_ll::{Encoder, Header};
use ciborium_io::Write as _;

let mut buffer = [0u8; 19];
let mut encoder = Encoder::from(&mut buffer[..]);

// Write the structure
encoder.push(Header::Map(Some(1))).unwrap();
encoder.push(Header::Positive(7)).unwrap();
encoder.text("Hello, World!", 7).unwrap();

// Validate our output
encoder.flush().unwrap();
assert_eq!(b"\xa1\x07\x7f\x67Hello, \x66World!\xff", &buffer[..]);

License: Apache-2.0

Dependencies

~215KB