3 releases

0.1.2 Feb 23, 2022
0.1.1 Nov 24, 2021
0.1.0 Nov 23, 2021

Used in 2 crates


15K SLoC

CESS Storage Proofs PoRep

The cess-sp-porep is the reference implementation of Proof-of-Replication (PoRep) and performs all the heavy lifting for cess-proofs.

Proof-of-Replication proves that a Storage Miner is dedicating unique storage for each sector. The miners collect new client's data in a sector, run a slow encoding process (called Seal) and generate proof (SealProof) that the encoding was generated correctly.

PoRep provides two guarantees:

  1. Space-hardness: Storage Miners cannot lie about the amount of space they are dedicating to CESS Network to gain more power.
  2. Replication: Storage Miners are dedicating unique storage for each copy of their client's data.

The Proof-of-Replication uses Stacked DRG (SDR) designed by Ben Fisch at EUROCRYPT19. SDR uses Depth Robust Graph to ensure the sector has been encoded with a slow and non-parallelizable sequential process.

The proof size in SDR is too large to store it in blockchain this is mostly due to the large amount of Merkle tree proofs required to achieve security. SDR verification algorithm is built using an arithmetic circuit and uses SNARKs to prove that SDR proof was evaluated correctly.

PoRep Circuit

Overview of entire PoRep Circuit

1_8ngv4D_fB5WzauWAY3b2fA Credits to Star LI


StackedCircuit is the over all circuit of PoRep, defined in proof.rs

pub struct StackedCircuit<'a, Tree: 'static + MerkleTreeTrait, G: 'static + Hasher> {
    public_params: <StackedDrg<'a, Tree, G> as ProofScheme<'a>>::PublicParams,
    replica_id: Option<<Tree::Hasher as Hasher>::Domain>,
    comm_d: Option<G::Domain>,
    comm_r: Option<<Tree::Hasher as Hasher>::Domain>,
    comm_r_last: Option<<Tree::Hasher as Hasher>::Domain>,
    comm_c: Option<<Tree::Hasher as Hasher>::Domain>,

    // one proof per challenge
    proofs: Vec<Proof<Tree, G>>,

This includes

  • public_params: StackedDrg (deep robust graph) related parameters, including the parameters of the graph itself and the number of challenges.
  • replica_id: Sector copy id
  • comm_d: the root of the binary tree of the original data
  • comm_r: hash result of comm_r_last and comm_c
  • comm_r_last: the root of the octree of the data after encoding
  • comm_c: Root of the octree of column hash result
  • proofs: Challenge the corresponding proof circuit

The construction of the entire circuit begins with the StackedCircuit synthesize interface function.

impl<'a, Tree: MerkleTreeTrait, G: Hasher> Circuit<Fr> for StackedCircuit<'a, Tree, G> {
    fn synthesize<CS: ConstraintSystem<Fr>>(self, cs: &mut CS) -> Result<(), SynthesisError> {
        let StackedCircuit {
        } = self;
        //... // function body.

This function divides the circuit into two parts:

  • Tree root check circuit
  • Challenge node information proof circuit

The Tree root check circuit is fairly simple and is used for verifying comm_r is calculated currectly using comm_c and comm_r_last. On the other hand Challenge node proof circuit generates challenge node proof circuit based on the size of the sector. For a 32GiB sector 176 challenges are generated. Also called as 176 small circuits.

for (i, proof) in proofs.into_iter().enumerate() {
        &mut cs.namespace(|| format!("challenge_{}", i)),

These small circuit of each challenge node is represented by Proof structure defined in params.rs.


Labeling a Node The labeling function for every node in a Stacked-DRG is Sha254 producing a 254-bit field element. A unique preimage is derived for each node-layer tuple in replicas' Stacked-DRG.

The proof circuit for Labeling calculation is to prove that a certain node is calculated correctly according to the SDR algorithm.

generate_labels function describes how every Stacked-DRG node is labeled for a replica. Nodes in the first layer are labeled using only DRG parents' labels, nodes in every subsequent layers are labeled using both their DRG and expander parents' labels. The first node in every layer is not labeled using parents.

The LabelingProof object can be created by calling the below function

impl<H: Hasher> LabelingProof<H> {
    pub fn new(layer_index: u32, node: u64, parents: Vec<H::Domain>) -> Self {
        LabelingProof {
            _h: PhantomData,

The create_label function computes sha256 of replica_id, layer_index and the node id concatinated in a buffer and hash of the parents itself.

The following code is used to verify all the labels generated on previous step. This function just checks for quality by comparing labeling_proof with label_node

/// Verify all labels.
fn verify_labels(
    replica_id: &<Tree::Hasher as Hasher>::Domain,
    layer_challenges: &LayerChallenges,
) -> bool {
    // Verify Labels Layer 1..layers


Encoding is the process by which a sector is transformed into its encoding replica. The encoding function is node-wise prime field addition, where "node-wise" means that every distinct slice of the sector is discretely encoded. Each distinct slice belonging to a sector is interpreted as a field element and encoded into Replica by adding its key to the slice.

The function encode is used to encode a sector (D) into replica (R) given an encoding key (K) derived from R's ReplicaId

pub fn encode<T: Domain>(key: T, value: T) -> T {
    let mut result: Fr = value.into();
    let key: Fr = key.into();

    result += key;


Replication is the entire process by which a sector D is uniquely encoded into a replica R. Replication encompasses Stacked-DRG labeling, encoding D into R, and the generation of trees TreeC over Labels and TreeR over R.

A miner derives a unique ReplicaID for each R using the commitment to the replica's sector CommD = TreeD.root (where TreeD is build over the nodes of the encoded sector D associated with R).

Given a sector D and its commitment CommD, replication proceeds as follows:

Generate the R’s unique ReplicaID. Generate Labels from ReplicaID, thus deriving the key K that encodes D into R. Generate TreeC over the columns of Labels via the column commitment process. Encode D into R using the encoding key K. Generate a TreeR: OctTree over the replica R. Commit to R and its associated labeling Labels via the commitment CommCR.

The function replicate runs the entire replication process for a sector D.

ReplicaID Generation

The function generate_replica_id describes how a miner having the ProverID is able to generate a ReplicaID for a replica R of sector D, where D has a unique sectorID and commitment CommD. The prover uses a unique random value R for each ReplicaID generated.

Sector Construction

A sector D is constructed from CESS client data where the aggregating of client data of has been preprocessed/bit-padded such that two zero bits are placed between each distinct 254-bit slice of client data. This padding process results in a sector D such that every 256-bit slice represents a valid 254-bit field element.

A Merkle tree TreeD: BinTree is constructed for sector D whose leaves are the 256-bit slices Di. Each TreeD is constructed over the preprocessed sector data D

PoRep Challenges

The function derive_internal creates the PoRep challenge set for a replica R's partition-k PoRep partition proof.


"zk-SNARKs are a cryptographic technique allowing a prover to efficiently convince verifiers that the prover knows something — but without revealing the information itself. zk-SNARKs allow for secure, private interaction with unknown and untrusted parties in a blockchain setting due to their (knowledge) soundness property: a valid proof cannot be created without knowledge of the correct statment, even if they are kept private." by Filecoin. The main benifit of using zk-SNARKs is that it allow us to prove the validity of storage in much less space.

The cess-proving-system uses the "Bellman's zk-SNARs" implementation, mainly based on BLS12-381 elliptic curve and realizes Groth16's zero-knowledge proof system. This library is used to verify whether the zero-knowledge proof is correct and the verification process takes around several milliseconds making it relatively fast.


MIT or Apache 2.0


~882K SLoC