#bitfields #flags

no-std tartan-bitfield

Define structures with accessors for particular bits or bit ranges

1 stable release

Uses new Rust 2021

1.0.0 Aug 14, 2022

#229 in Rust patterns

MIT/Apache

34KB
369 lines

Tartan Bitfield

This crate can be used to define structures with accessors for particular bits or bit ranges. Useful for dealing with registers and protocols.

Features

  • Performance: Generated code is nearly identical to hand-rolled bit twiddling.
  • Safety: Absolutely no unsafe code in the implementation or usage.
  • Portability:
    • #![no_std]-compatible out of the box.
    • Unlike bit fields in C, the layout is predictable. See the section about endianness below.
    • Unlike Rust's #[repr(packed, C)], each field has explicit bit ranges, rather than relying on the ordering and size of other fields within the struct. While specifying bit numbers may seem tedious, it can eliminate surprises, and it usually corresponds directly to the way registers and protocols are defined in datasheets.
  • Convenience:
    • Single-bit flags and multi-bit fields can be defined in the same structure.
    • Bit ranges can be accessed as non-primitive, non-integer types (including other bitfield structs) using appropriate [Into] and [From] implementations.
    • The structs implement all the traits you would expect. See the documentation for [bitfield]. A [bitfield_without_debug] macro is also available if you want to provide your own debugging output.
    • Accessors can be defined in a trait, which is useful for registers where where some fields are common, but others are only defined in certain states. See [bitfield_accessors].

Example

bitfield! {
    // The structure will be a wrapper for a u32 value.
    pub struct Example(u32) {
        // Accessors for field `a` will refer to the first four least significant
        // bits of the wrapped value, bits 0, 1, 2, and 3. Note that like normal
        // Rust ranges, the end of the range is *exclusive*.
        //
        // The accessors will be public, and will take/return the four bits as a `u8`.
        [0..4] pub a: u8,

        // No accessors cover bits `4..6`. This is legal and can be used for reserved
        // bits. However, these bits will still affect equality for the struct as a
        // whole.

        // Accessors for field `b` will refer to the twelve bits starting at bit 6,
        // but they will not be public. They will take/return the 12 bits as a `u16`.
        [6..18] b: u16,

        // Note that this bit range overlaps with `b`. This is allowed.
        [16..20] pub c: u8,

        // Accessors for field `d` will take/return a boolean and refer to a single
        // bit. Note that the `bool` is implied and not specified after the name.
        [25] pub d,

        // This will cover the 6 most significant bits of the wrapped value, but
        // the getters will take/return a `SubFields` struct instead of `u8`. This is
        // useful for nested bitfields, but the `A as B` syntax works for any `B`
        // which implements `Into<A>` and `From<A>`.
        [26..32] pub e: u8 as SubFields,
    }
}

bitfield! {
    // All accessors on this field use booleans and refer to single bits
    pub struct SubFields(u8) {
        [0] pub zero,
        [1] pub one,
        [2] pub two,
        [3] pub three,
        [4] pub four,
        [5] pub five,
    }
}


// The struct can be initialized with a u32 value
let x = Example(0xfa84_9e1b);
assert_eq!(x.a(), 0xb_u8);
assert_eq!(x.b(), 0x278_u16);  // Private, but still can be used within the module
assert_eq!(x.c(), 0x4_u8);
assert_eq!(x.d(), true);
assert_eq!(x.e(), SubFields(0x3e_u8));
assert_eq!(x.e().zero(), false);
assert_eq!(x.e().five(), true);

// It can also be converted Into and From its underlying representation
let n: u32 = x.into();
let y: Example = n.into();
assert_eq!(n, 0xfa84_9e1b);
assert_eq!(x, y);

// Setters are all prefixed with `set_`. They have the same visibility as the getters.
let mut z = Example::default();
z.set_a(0xb);
z.set_b(0x278);
z.set_c(0x4);
z.set_d(true);
z.set_e(SubFields(0x3e));
assert_eq!(z, Example(0xfa04_9e0b));

// Reserved ranges influence equality, and they are all zero on `z`.
assert_ne!(z, x);

For lots more examples, see the Tartan OS project that this crate was spun off from.

Endiannness and Bit Numbering

Each bitfield wraps an underlying integer type. In the example above, Example(u32) wraps a u32. Bit numbers within the macro refer to the bits of the logical value, starting from the least significant bit = 0. They are not dependent on the order of the bytes of the u32 representation in memory, a.k.a. endianness.

The endianness of the underlying value is platform dependent. This is no different than any other integer value, and the context determines whether you need to worry about it.

  • If the underlying representation is a u8, then byte order is irrelevant.
  • If you are reading from a register, it's likely you want native byte order and don't need to do anything special.
  • If you are working with a network or bus protocol, it's likely you are serializing or deserializing from a byte array. To convert using a specific endianness regardless of platform, use the normal methods: for example, the builtins [u32::from_be_bytes] and [u64::to_le_bytes], or a crate like byteorder.

Alternatives

I have been using this in my personal OS project for a while, and it meets my needs better than other options. But you may be interested in a few other crates:

  • bitfield: Similar approach for accessors and bit ranges, but a less obvious syntax.
  • bitflags: Works well for single-bit flags that can be viewed as a collection.
  • bitvec: Another collection type to view memory as a sequence of bits. Less focused on defining domain-specific structs.
  • modular-bitfield: Field ordering and widths determine bit ranges. Structs can only be converted to byte arrays, and only in little-endian order, regardless of platform endianness. This can be undesirable when working with registers.
  • packed_struct: Lots of options, including bit numbering and endianness conversions. Structs are held in unpacked form in memory, and only converted to packed form for serialization. Depending on your access patterns, this may be better or worse (or it may not matter at all).

Installation

Add to your Cargo.toml:

[dependencies]
tartan-bitfield = 0.1.0

Development

This is a pretty standard Rust library using Cargo.

Tests

cargo test --all-targets

Benchmarks

cargo bench

Formatting/Linting

cargo fmt
cargo clippy --all-targets

License

Licensed under either of

at your option.

Contribution

Unless you explicitly state otherwise, any contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the work by you, as defined in the Apache-2.0 license, shall be dual licensed as above, without any additional terms or conditions.


This README was generated from doc comments. Use cargo readme to refresh it.

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