#id-generator #distributed-id #id #snowflake-id #unique-id #generator #snowflake

bin+lib sequence-generator-rust

Customizable 64-bit unique distributed IDs sequence generator based on Twitter's ID (snowflake). Build in Rust

7 releases

0.4.1 Jan 3, 2024
0.4.0 Dec 27, 2023
0.3.2 Dec 26, 2023
0.3.1 Sep 16, 2022
0.1.2 Jan 27, 2021

#161 in Algorithms

Download history 13/week @ 2024-02-26 122/week @ 2024-03-11 8/week @ 2024-04-01

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64-bit IDs sequence generator based on the concepts outlined in Twitter Server's ID (formerly snowflake). Build on Rust

Table of Contents


  git clone https://github.com/drconopoima/sequence-generator-rust.git
  cd sequence-generator-rust
  cargo build --release

The binary was generated under target/release/sequence-generator-rust


You can generate sequential IDs based on timestamp, sequence number and node/worker ID (based on Twitter snowflake):

By default this package format defines:

  • the right-most 9 bits are used to store worker and/or host information (up to 512)
  • subsequently, 11 bits are used to store a sequence number (up to 2048)
  • the left-most, 44 bits are used to store a custom epoch with precision of 10 samples every millisecond (10^-1). That's enough to store 55 years from a custom epoch
  • There are no bits left unused.
  • Custom epoch is set to the beginning of current decade (2020-01-01)


Generate a single sequence number as follows, with a worker-id set up from .env file (default 0):

$ cargo run \
  0: 731587959438966784

Generate many sequence values (-n|--number), provide a custom worker id (--node-id), and measure the time taken (-d|--debug):

cargo run --release -- -n 8 --node-id 505 --debug
0: 731586108621586937
1: 731586108621587449
2: 731586108621587961
3: 731586108621588473
4: 731586108621588985
5: 731586108621589497
6: 731586108621590009
7: 731586108621590521
It took 661 nanoseconds

Each one of the parameters for the sequence are customizable.

By default the original Twitter snowflake format defines:

  • 1 bit left unused (sign)
  • 41 bits are used to store a custom epoch with millisecond precision (10^3 microseconds for 69 years from a custom epoch)
  • 10 bits are used to store worker and datacenter information (up to 1024)
  • 12 bits are used to store a sequence number (up to 4096)
  • Uses a custom epoch of 1288834974657 or Nov 04 2010 01:42:54.

You can perfectly and easily recreate Twitter's snowflakes by passing the following command arguments.

$ cargo run --release -- -n 8 -d --unused-bits 1 --node-id-bits 10 --sequence-bits 12 --micros-ten-power 3 --custom-epoch '2010-11-04T01:42:54Z'  --node-id 128
0: 137870923482005632
1: 137870923482006656
2: 137870923482007680
3: 137870923482008704
4: 137870923482009728
5: 137870923482010752
6: 137870923482011776
7: 137870923482012800
It took 571 nanoseconds

The specific structure of the integers at the binary level includes:

  • The left-most bits (customizable, by default none) might be unused and set to 0.
  • The second group of bits store the timestamp in a custom exponential by microseconds (by default 44 bits and sampling every 100 mcs, equivalent to argument --micros-ten-power 2). You cannot customize number of bits of the timestamp directly, but by indirectly setting different values for other bit groups.
  • The third group of bits store the sequence (by default 11 bits)
  • The right-most group of bits store the host/worker ID (by default 9 bits)

You can also customize by dotenv file. Copy the file .env-example into .env

cp .env-example .env

And change the example values to your liking.

The precedence of parameters assigned through the command-line launch arguments is the highest, whichever are not assigned can be retrieved by use of a .env file, and if still unassigned parameters remains, then default values described above are used.

The only supported custom epoch format is RFC-3339/ISO-8601 both as CLI argument and from the dotenv file.

Check a detailed analysis for a generated value in the auxiliar bit structure analysis


See auxiliar benchmarking notes


use std::time::UNIX_EPOCH;
use ::sequence_generator::*;

let custom_epoch = UNIX_EPOCH;  // SystemTime object representing custom epoch time. Use checked_add(Duration) for different time
let node_id_bits = 10;          // 10-bit node/worker ID
let sequence_bits = 12;         // 12-bit sequence
let unused_bits = 1;            // unused (sign) bits at the start of the ID. 1 or 0 generally
let micros_ten_power = 3;       // Operate in milliseconds (10^3 microseconds)
let node_id = 500;              // Current worker/node ID
let cooldown_ns = 1500;         // initial time in nanoseconds for exponential backoff wait after sequence is exhausted

// Generate SequenceProperties
let properties = sequence_generator::SequenceProperties::new(

// Generate an ID
let id = sequence_generator::generate_id(&properties).unwrap();
// Decode ID
// Timestamp
let timestamp_micros = sequence_generator::decode_id_unix_epoch_micros(id, &properties);
// Sequence
let sequence = sequence_generator::decode_sequence_id(id, &properties);
// Node ID
let id_node = sequence_generator::decode_node_id(id, &properties);


Please open an issue for support.


See changelog


Please contribute using Github Flow. Create a branch, add commits, and open a pull request.


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