### 13 releases

0.7.5 | Apr 19, 2020 |
---|---|

0.7.4 | Feb 12, 2020 |

0.7.3 | Sep 7, 2018 |

0.7.1 | Sep 21, 2017 |

0.6.1 | Jul 10, 2017 |

#**47** in Data structures

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**MPL-2.0**license

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# qp-trie-rs: A QP-trie implementation in pure Rust

A QP-trie ("Quelques-bits Popcount trie" or "Quad-bit Popcount trie") is a radix trie for keys which can be interpreted as a string of nybbles (where a nybble is half a byte, or four bits.) QP-tries are essentially Patricia tries which branch on nybbles instead of individual bits; as such, a QP-trie has a branching factor (and radix) of 16.

## Serialization/deserialization through Serde

Optionally, the

type supports (de-)serialization through
serde. Enabling the `qp_trie ::`Trie

`serde`

feature will
enable compilation of `Deserialize`

and `Serialize`

implementations for `Trie`

.## When should I use a QP-trie?

QP-tries as implemented in this crate are key-value maps for any keys which
implement

. They are useful whenever you might need the same
operations as a `Borrow <[u8]>`

`HashMap`

or `BTreeMap`

, but need either a bit more speed
(QP-tries are as fast or a bit faster as Rust's `HashMap`

with the default
hasher) and/or the ability to efficiently query for sets of elements with a
given prefix.QP-tries support efficient lookup/insertion/removal of individual elements, lookup/removal of sets of values with keys with a given prefix.

## Examples

Keys can be any type which implements

. Unfortunately at the
moment, this rules out `Borrow <[u8]>`

`String`

- while this trie can still be used to store
strings, it is necessary to manually convert them to byte slices and `Vec``<``u8``>`

s
for use as keys. Here's a naive, simple example of putting 9 2-element byte arrays
into the trie, and then removing all byte arrays which begin with "1":`use` `qp_trie``::`Trie`;`
`let` `mut` trie `=` `Trie``::`new`(``)``;`
`for` i `in` `0``u8``..``3` `{`
`for` j `in` `0``u8``..``3` `{`
trie`.``insert``(``[`i`,` j`]``,` i `+` j`)``;`
`}`
`}`
`for` i `in` `0``u8``..``3` `{`
trie`.``remove``(``[``1``,` i`]``)``;`
`}`
`assert!``(`trie`.``iter``(``)``.``all``(``|``(`&`key``,` _`)``|` `key``[``0``]` `!=` `1``)``)``;`

Here's a slightly less naive method, which is actually vastly more efficient:

`use` `qp_trie``::`Trie`;`
`let` `mut` trie `=` `Trie``::`new`(``)``;`
`for` i `in` `0``u8``..``3` `{`
trie`.``extend``(``(``0``u8``..``3``)``.``map``(``|``j``|` `(``[`i`,` j`]``,` i `+` j`)``)``)``;`
`}`
trie`.``remove_prefix``(``[``1``]``)``;`
`assert!``(`trie`.``iter``(``)``.``all``(``|``(`&`key``,` _`)``|` `key``[``0``]` `!=` `1``)``)``;`

Although the

bit really isn't any more efficient (it's difficult to
preallocate space for `extend`

elements in a trie) we're guaranteed that
`n`

only actually removes a single node in the trie - the
parent node of all nodes with the given prefix. QP-tries, like all radix tries,
are extremely efficient when dealing with anything related to prefixes. This
extends to iteration over prefixes:`trie .remove_prefix([1])`

`use` `qp_trie``::`Trie`;`
`let` `mut` trie `=` `Trie``::`new`(``)``;`
`for` i `in` `0``u8``..``3` `{`
trie`.``extend``(``(``0``u8``..``3``)``.``map``(``|``k``|` `(``[`i`,` j`]``,` i `+` j`)``)``)``;`
`}`
`let` `mut` iter `=` trie`.``iter_prefix``(``[``1``]``)``;`
`assert_eq!``(`iter`.``next``(``)``,` `Some``(``(``&``[``1``,` `0``]``,` `&``1``)``)``)``;`
`assert_eq!``(`iter`.``next``(``)``,` `Some``(``(``&``[``1``,` `1``]``,` `&``2``)``)``)``;`
`assert_eq!``(`iter`.``next``(``)``,` `Some``(``(``&``[``1``,` `2``]``,` `&``3``)``)``)``;`
`assert_eq!``(`iter`.``next``(``)``,` `None``)``;`

## Differences from the qptrie crate

This crate originally started as a fork of the

crate; however, I found
the code difficult to work with and full of unsafe pointer manipulation which I
felt could be avoided. To avoid a pull request which would essentially rewrite
the entire library I decided to write my own instead.`qptrie`

Several notable idiomatic features are provided which were missing from the

crate:`qptrie`

and`.``iter``(``)`

for immutable and mutable iteration over the key/value pairs of the trie`.``iter_mut``(``)`

implements`qp_trie`Trie`::`

and`Extend``IntoIterator`

implements`qp_trie`Trie`::`

and`Index``IndexMut`

provides an "Entry API" with type signatures almost identical to that provided by the`qp_trie`Trie`::``std`collections`::`

and`BTreeMap`

.`HashMap`

In addition to being written using safer code (failures which would otherwise
cause undefined behavior will cause panics when compiled with debug assertions
enabled)

is slightly faster than `qp_trie ::`Trie

`qptrie``::`Trie

according to
benchmarks based on those shown in the `qptrie`

repository.## Benchmarks

Benchmarks are run against the

crate, the Rust stdlib `qptrie`

, and
the stdlib `BTreeMap`

with both default and FNV hashing. `HashMap`

consistently outperforms the `qp_trie ::`Trie

`std``::`collections

`BTreeMap`

and `HashMap`

, as
well as the `qptrie`

crate's implementation.Benchmarks named

are using the `exotrie`

implementation.`qptrie ::`Trie

`test bench_btreemap_get ... bench: 111,468,098 ns/iter (+/- 10,103,247)
test bench_btreemap_insert ... bench: 112,124,846 ns/iter (+/- 14,296,195)
test bench_exotrie_get ... bench: 46,195,582 ns/iter (+/- 16,943,561)
test bench_exotrie_insert ... bench: 52,886,847 ns/iter (+/- 15,574,538)
test bench_fnvhashmap_get ... bench: 9,530,109 ns/iter (+/- 820,763)
test bench_fnvhashmap_insert ... bench: 21,281,107 ns/iter (+/- 7,254,084)
test bench_hashmap_get ... bench: 49,653,426 ns/iter (+/- 7,004,051)
test bench_hashmap_insert ... bench: 47,771,824 ns/iter (+/- 4,979,606)
test bench_trie_get ... bench: 40,898,914 ns/iter (+/- 13,400,062)
test bench_trie_insert ... bench: 50,966,392 ns/iter (+/- 18,077,240)
`

## Future work

- Add wrapper types for

and`String`

to make working with strings easier.`str`

## License

The

crate is licensed under the MPL v2.0.`qp-trie-rs`

#### Dependencies

~200KB