8 unstable releases (3 breaking)

0.3.2 Jan 28, 2024
0.3.1 Jan 26, 2024
0.2.0 Jan 24, 2024
0.1.0 Jan 23, 2024
0.0.2 Dec 30, 2023

#2 in #hit

Download history 142/week @ 2024-02-20 52/week @ 2024-02-27 16/week @ 2024-04-02

85 downloads per month

MIT license

105KB
2K SLoC

Rust 1.5K SLoC SQL 423 SLoC // 0.1% comments

rust-pg-extras Latest Version GH Actions

Rust port of Heroku PG Extras with several additions and improvements. The goal of this project is to provide powerful insights into the PostgreSQL database for Rust apps that are not using the Heroku PostgreSQL plugin.

Queries can be used to obtain information about a Postgres instance, that may be useful when analyzing performance issues. This includes information about locks, index usage, buffer cache hit ratios and vacuum statistics. Rust API enables developers to easily integrate the tool into e.g. automatic monitoring tasks.

You can check out this blog post for detailed step by step tutorial on how to optimize PostgreSQL using PG Extras library.

Alternative versions:

Installation

In your Cargo.toml

pg-extras = "0.3"

calls and outliers queries require pg_stat_statements extension.

You can check if it is enabled in your database by running:

use pg_extras::{render_table, extensions}

render_table(extensions()?);

You should see the similar line in the output:

| pg_stat_statements  | 1.7  | 1.7 | track execution statistics of all SQL statements executed |

ssl_used requires sslinfo extension, and buffercache_usage/buffercache_usage queries need pg_buffercache. You can enable them all by running this SQL:

CREATE EXTENSION IF NOT EXISTS sslinfo;
CREATE EXTENSION IF NOT EXISTS pg_buffercache;
CREATE EXTENSION IF NOT EXISTS pg_stat_statements;

Usage

Package expects the ENV['PG_EXTRAS_DATABASE_URL'] or ENV['DATABASE_URL'] value in the following format:

ENV["DATABASE_URL"] = "postgresql://postgres:secret@localhost:5432/database_name"

You can run queries using a Rust API to display an ASCCI table with results:

use pg_extras::{render_table, cache_hit}

render_table(cache_hit(None).await?);

+----------------+------------------------+
|        Index and table hit rate         |
+----------------+------------------------+
| name           | ratio                  |
+----------------+------------------------+
| index hit rate | 0.97796610169491525424 |
| table hit rate | 0.96724294813466787989 |
+----------------+------------------------+

Alternatively you can work directly with returned structs:

use pg_extras::{render_table, cache_hit, CacheHit}

let cache_hit_res: Vec<CacheHit> = cache_hit(None).await?;
println!("{:?}", cache_hit_res);

// [CacheHit { name: "index hit rate", ratio:  0.9779... }, CacheHit { name: "table hit rate", ratio: 0.9672... }]

Some methods accept params allowing you to customize queries:

cache_hit(Some("other_schema".to_string)).await?;

You can customize the default public schema by setting ENV['PG_EXTRAS_SCHEMA'] value.

Command line

After running cargo install pg-extras you can use pg_extras shell command:

$ pg_extras cache_hit
+----------------+------------------------+
| /* Index and table hit rate */          |
+================+========================+
| name           | ratio                  |
+----------------+------------------------+
| index hit rate | 0.99138647287107053837 |
+----------------+------------------------+
| table hit rate | 0.99984856854492081787 |
+----------------+------------------------+

Available methods

cache_hit

struct CacheHit {
    name: String,
    ratio: Decimal,
}

cache_hit(schema: Option<String>) -> Result<Vec<CacheHit>, PgExtrasError>

      name      |         ratio
----------------+------------------------
 index hit rate | 0.99957765013541945832
 table hit rate |                   1.00
(2 rows)

This command provides information on the efficiency of the buffer cache, for both index reads (index hit rate) as well as table reads (table hit rate). A low buffer cache hit ratio can be a sign that the Postgres instance is too small for the workload.

More info

index_cache_hit

struct IndexCacheHit {
    name: String,
    buffer_hits: i64,
    block_reads: i64,
    total_read: i64,
    ratio: String,
}

index_cache_hit(schema: Option<String>) -> Result<Vec<IndexCacheHit>, PgExtrasError>

| name                  | buffer_hits | block_reads | total_read | ratio             |
+-----------------------+-------------+-------------+------------+-------------------+
| teams                 | 187665      | 109         | 187774     | 0.999419514948821 |
| subscriptions         | 5160        | 6           | 5166       | 0.99883855981417  |
| plans                 | 5718        | 9           | 5727       | 0.998428496595076 |
(truncated results for brevity)

The same as cache_hit with each table's indexes cache hit info displayed separately.

More info

table_cache_hit

struct TableCacheHit {
    name: String,
    buffer_hits: i64,
    block_reads: i64,
    total_read: i64,
    ratio: String,
}

table_cache_hit() -> Result<Vec<TableCacheHit>, PgExtrasError>

| name                  | buffer_hits | block_reads | total_read | ratio             |
+-----------------------+-------------+-------------+------------+-------------------+
| plans                 | 32123       | 2           | 32125      | 0.999937743190662 |
| subscriptions         | 95021       | 8           | 95029      | 0.999915815172211 |
| teams                 | 171637      | 200         | 171837     | 0.99883610631005  |
(truncated results for brevity)

The same as cache_hit with each table's cache hit info displayed seperately.

More info

db_settings

struct DbSettings {
    name: String,
    setting: String,
    unit: String,
    short_desc: String,
}

db_settings() -> Result<Vec<DbSettings>, PgExtrasError>

             name             | setting | unit |
------------------------------+---------+------+
 checkpoint_completion_target | 0.7     |      |
 default_statistics_target    | 100     |      |
 effective_cache_size         | 1350000 | 8kB  |
 effective_io_concurrency     | 1       |      |
(truncated results for brevity)

This method displays values for selected PostgreSQL settings. You can compare them with settings recommended by PGTune and tweak values to improve performance.

More info

ssl_used

struct SslUsed {
    ssl_used: bool,
}

ssl_used() -> Result<Vec<SslUsed>, PgExtrasError>

| ssl_is_used                     |
+---------------------------------+
| t                               |

Returns boolean indicating if an encrypted SSL is currently used. Connecting to the database via an unencrypted connection is a critical security risk.

index_usage

struct IndexUsage {
    relname: String,
    percent_of_times_index_used: String,
    rows_in_table: i64,
}

index_usage(schema: Option<String>) -> Result<Vec<IndexUsage>, PgExtrasError>

       relname       | percent_of_times_index_used | rows_in_table
---------------------+-----------------------------+---------------
 events              |                          65 |       1217347
 app_infos           |                          74 |        314057
 app_infos_user_info |                           0 |        198848
 user_info           |                           5 |         94545
 delayed_jobs        |                          27 |             0
(5 rows)

This command provides information on the efficiency of indexes, represented as what percentage of total scans were index scans. A low percentage can indicate under indexing, or wrong data being indexed.

locks

struct Locks {
    pid: i32,
    relname: String,
    transactionid: String,
    granted: bool,
    mode: String,
    query_snippet: String,
    age: String,
    application: String,
}

locks() -> Result<Vec<Locks>, PgExtrasError>

 procpid | relname | transactionid | granted |     query_snippet     | mode             |       age        |   application |
---------+---------+---------------+---------+-----------------------+------------------------------------------------------
   31776 |         |               | t       | <IDLE> in transaction | ExclusiveLock    |  00:19:29.837898 |  bin/rails
   31776 |         |          1294 | t       | <IDLE> in transaction | RowExclusiveLock |  00:19:29.837898 |  bin/rails
   31912 |         |               | t       | select * from hello;  | ExclusiveLock    |  00:19:17.94259  |  bin/rails
    3443 |         |               | t       |                      +| ExclusiveLock    |  00:00:00        |  bin/sidekiq
         |         |               |         |    select            +|                  |                  |
         |         |               |         |      pg_stat_activi   |                  |                  |
(4 rows)

This command displays queries that have taken out an exclusive lock on a relation. Exclusive locks typically prevent other operations on that relation from taking place, and can be a cause of "hung" queries that are waiting for a lock to be granted.

More info

all_locks

struct AllLocks {
    pid: String,
    relname: String,
    transactionid: String,
    granted: String,
    mode: String,
    query_snippet: String,
    age: String,
    application: String,
}

all_locks() -> Result<Vec<AllLocks>, PgExtrasError> 

This command displays all the current locks, regardless of their type.

outliers

struct Outliers {
    total_exec_time: PgInterval,
    prop_exec_time: String,
    ncalls: String,
    sync_io_time: PgInterval,
    query: String,
}

outliers() -> Result<Vec<Outliers>, PgExtrasError>

                   query                 |    exec_time     | prop_exec_time |   ncalls    | sync_io_time
-----------------------------------------+------------------+----------------+-------------+--------------
 SELECT * FROM archivable_usage_events.. | 154:39:26.431466 | 72.2%          | 34,211,877  | 00:00:00
 COPY public.archivable_usage_events (.. | 50:38:33.198418  | 23.6%          | 13          | 13:34:21.00108
 COPY public.usage_events (id, reporte.. | 02:32:16.335233  | 1.2%           | 13          | 00:34:19.784318
 INSERT INTO usage_events (id, retaine.. | 01:42:59.436532  | 0.8%           | 12,328,187  | 00:00:00
 SELECT * FROM usage_events WHERE (alp.. | 01:18:10.754354  | 0.6%           | 102,114,301 | 00:00:00
 UPDATE usage_events SET reporter_id =.. | 00:52:35.683254  | 0.4%           | 23,786,348  | 00:00:00
 INSERT INTO usage_events (id, retaine.. | 00:49:24.952561  | 0.4%           | 21,988,201  | 00:00:00
(truncated results for brevity)

This command displays statements, obtained from pg_stat_statements, ordered by the amount of time to execute in aggregate. This includes the statement itself, the total execution time for that statement, the proportion of total execution time for all statements that statement has taken up, the number of times that statement has been called, and the amount of time that statement spent on synchronous I/O (reading/writing from the file system).

Typically, an efficient query will have an appropriate ratio of calls to total execution time, with as little time spent on I/O as possible. Queries that have a high total execution time but low call count should be investigated to improve their performance. Queries that have a high proportion of execution time being spent on synchronous I/O should also be investigated.

More info

calls

struct Calls {
    qry: String,
    exec_time: PgInterval,
    prop_exec_time: String,
    ncalls: String,
    sync_io_time: PgInterval,
}

calls(limit: Option<String>) -> Result<Vec<Calls>, PgExtrasError>

                   qry                   |    exec_time     | prop_exec_time |   ncalls    | sync_io_time
-----------------------------------------+------------------+----------------+-------------+--------------
 SELECT * FROM usage_events WHERE (alp.. | 01:18:11.073333  | 0.6%           | 102,120,780 | 00:00:00
 BEGIN                                   | 00:00:51.285988  | 0.0%           | 47,288,662  | 00:00:00
 COMMIT                                  | 00:00:52.31724   | 0.0%           | 47,288,615  | 00:00:00
 SELECT * FROM  archivable_usage_event.. | 154:39:26.431466 | 72.2%          | 34,211,877  | 00:00:00
 UPDATE usage_events SET reporter_id =.. | 00:52:35.986167  | 0.4%           | 23,788,388  | 00:00:00
 INSERT INTO usage_events (id, retaine.. | 00:49:25.260245  | 0.4%           | 21,990,326  | 00:00:00
 INSERT INTO usage_events (id, retaine.. | 01:42:59.436532  | 0.8%           | 12,328,187  | 00:00:00
(truncated results for brevity)

This command is much like pg:outliers, but ordered by the number of times a statement has been called.

More info

blocking

struct Blocking {
    blocked_pid: i32,
    blocking_statement: String,
    blocking_duration: PgInterval,
    blocking_pid: i32,
    blocked_statement: String,
    blocked_duration: PgInterval,
    blocked_sql_app: String,
    blocking_sql_app: String,
}

blocking(limit: Option<String>) -> Result<Vec<Blocking>, PgExtrasError>

 blocked_pid |    blocking_statement    | blocking_duration | blocking_pid |                                        blocked_statement                           | blocked_duration
-------------+--------------------------+-------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------
         461 | select count(*) from app | 00:00:03.838314   |        15682 | UPDATE "app" SET "updated_at" = '2013-03-04 15:07:04.746688' WHERE "id" = 12823149 | 00:00:03.821826
(1 row)

This command displays statements that are currently holding locks that other statements are waiting to be released. This can be used in conjunction with pg:locks to determine which statements need to be terminated in order to resolve lock contention.

More info

total_index_size

struct TotalIndexSize {
    size: String,
}

total_index_size() -> Result<Vec<TotalIndexSize>, PgExtrasError>

  size
-------
 28194 MB
(1 row)

This command displays the total size of all indexes on the database, in MB. It is calculated by taking the number of pages (reported in relpages) and multiplying it by the page size (8192 bytes).

index_size

 struct IndexSize {
    name: String,
    size: String,
    schema: String,
}

index_size() -> Result<Vec<IndexSize>, PgExtrasError> 

                             name                              |  size   | schema |
---------------------------------------------------------------+-------------------
 idx_activity_attemptable_and_type_lesson_enrollment           | 5196 MB | public |
 index_enrollment_attemptables_by_attempt_and_last_in_group    | 4045 MB | public |
 index_attempts_on_student_id                                  | 2611 MB | custom |
 enrollment_activity_attemptables_pkey                         | 2513 MB | custom |
 index_attempts_on_student_id_final_attemptable_type           | 2466 MB | custom |
 attempts_pkey                                                 | 2466 MB | custom |
 index_attempts_on_response_id                                 | 2404 MB | public |
 index_attempts_on_enrollment_id                               | 1957 MB | public |
 index_enrollment_attemptables_by_enrollment_activity_id       | 1789 MB | public |
 enrollment_activities_pkey                                    |  458 MB | public |
(truncated results for brevity)

This command displays the size of each each index in the database, in MB. It is calculated by taking the number of pages (reported in relpages) and multiplying it by the page size (8192 bytes).

table_size

struct TableSize {
    name: String,
    size: String,
    schema: String,
}

table_size() -> Result<Vec<TableSize>, PgExtrasError> 

                             name                              |  size   | schema |
---------------------------------------------------------------+-------------------
 learning_coaches                                              |  196 MB | public |
 states                                                        |  145 MB | public |
 grade_levels                                                  |  111 MB | custom |
 charities_customers                                           |   73 MB | public |
 charities                                                     |   66 MB | public |
(truncated results for brevity)

This command displays the size of each table and materialized view in the database, in MB. It is calculated by using the system administration function pg_table_size(), which includes the size of the main data fork, free space map, visibility map and TOAST data.

table_indexes_size

TableIndexesSize {
    table: String,
    index_size: String,
}

table_indexes_size(schema: Option<String>) -> Result<Vec<TableIndexesSize>, PgExtrasError> 

                             table                             | indexes_size
---------------------------------------------------------------+--------------
 learning_coaches                                              |    153 MB
 states                                                        |    125 MB
 charities_customers                                           |     93 MB
 charities                                                     |     16 MB
 grade_levels                                                  |     11 MB
(truncated results for brevity)

This command displays the total size of indexes for each table and materialized view, in MB. It is calculated by using the system administration function pg_indexes_size().

total_table_size

struct TotalTableSize {
    name: String,
    size: String,
}

total_table_size() -> Result<Vec<TotalTableSize>, PgExtrasError>

                             name                              |  size
---------------------------------------------------------------+---------
 learning_coaches                                              |  349 MB
 states                                                        |  270 MB
 charities_customers                                           |  166 MB
 grade_levels                                                  |  122 MB
 charities                                                     |   82 MB
(truncated results for brevity)

This command displays the total size of each table and materialized view in the database, in MB. It is calculated by using the system administration function pg_total_relation_size(), which includes table size, total index size and TOAST data.

unused_indexes

struct UnusedIndexes {
    table: String,
    index: String,
    index_size: String,
    index_scans: i64,
}

unused_indexes(schema: Option<String>) -> Result<Vec<UnusedIndexes>, PgExtrasError> 

          table      |                       index                | index_size | index_scans
---------------------+--------------------------------------------+------------+-------------
 public.grade_levels | index_placement_attempts_on_grade_level_id | 97 MB      |           0
 public.observations | observations_attrs_grade_resources         | 33 MB      |           0
 public.messages     | user_resource_id_idx                       | 12 MB      |           0
(3 rows)

This command displays indexes that have < 50 scans recorded against them, and are greater than 5 pages in size, ordered by size relative to the number of index scans. This command is generally useful for eliminating indexes that are unused, which can impact write performance, as well as read performance should they occupy space in memory.

More info

duplicate_indexes

struct DuplicateIndexes {
    size: String,
    idx1: String,
    idx2: String,
    idx3: String,
    idx4: String,
}

duplicate_indexes() -> Result<Vec<DuplicateIndexes>, PgExtrasError> 

| size       |  idx1        |  idx2          |  idx3    |  idx4     |
+------------+--------------+----------------+----------+-----------+
| 128 k      | users_pkey   | index_users_id |          |           |

This command displays multiple indexes that have the same set of columns, same opclass, expression and predicate - which make them equivalent. Usually it's safe to drop one of them.

null_indexes

struct NullIndexes {
    oid: String,
    index: String,
    index_size: String,
    unique: bool,
    indexed_column: String,
    table: String,
    null_frac: String,
    expected_saving: String,
    schema: String,
}

null_indexes(min_relation_size_mb: Option<String>) -> Result<Vec<NullIndexes>, PgExtrasError> 

   oid   |         index      | index_size | unique | indexed_column | null_frac | expected_saving
---------+--------------------+------------+--------+----------------+-----------+-----------------
  183764 | users_reset_token  | 1445 MB    | t      | reset_token    |   97.00%  | 1401 MB
   88732 | plan_cancelled_at  | 539 MB     | f      | cancelled_at   |    8.30%  | 44 MB
 9827345 | users_email        | 18 MB      | t      | email          |   28.67%  | 5160 kB

This command displays indexes that contain NULL values. A high ratio of NULL values means that using a partial index excluding them will be beneficial in case they are not used for searching.

More info

seq_scans

struct SeqScans {
    name: String,
    count: i64,
}

seq_scans(schema: Option<String>) -> Result<Vec<SeqScans>, PgExtrasError>

               name                |  count
-----------------------------------+----------
 learning_coaches                  | 44820063
 states                            | 36794975
 grade_levels                      | 13972293
 charities_customers               |  8615277
 charities                         |  4316276
 messages                          |  3922247
 contests_customers                |  2915972
 classroom_goals                   |  2142014
(truncated results for brevity)

This command displays the number of sequential scans recorded against all tables, descending by count of sequential scans. Tables that have very high numbers of sequential scans may be under-indexed, and it may be worth investigating queries that read from these tables.

More info

long_running_queries

struct LongRunningQueries {
    pid: String,
    duration: String,
    query: String,
}

long_running_queries() -> Result<Vec<LongRunningQueries>, PgExtrasError> 

  pid  |    duration     |                                      query
-------+-----------------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 19578 | 02:29:11.200129 | EXPLAIN SELECT  "students".* FROM "students"  WHERE "students"."id" = 1450645 LIMIT 1
 19465 | 02:26:05.542653 | EXPLAIN SELECT  "students".* FROM "students"  WHERE "students"."id" = 1889881 LIMIT 1
 19632 | 02:24:46.962818 | EXPLAIN SELECT  "students".* FROM "students"  WHERE "students"."id" = 1581884 LIMIT 1
(truncated results for brevity)

This command displays currently running queries, that have been running for longer than 5 minutes, descending by duration. Very long running queries can be a source of multiple issues, such as preventing DDL statements completing or vacuum being unable to update relfrozenxid.

records_rank

struct RecordsRank {
    name: String,
    esiimated_count: i64,
}

records_rank(schema: Option<String>) -> Result<Vec<RecordsRank>, PgExtrasError> 

               name                | estimated_count
-----------------------------------+-----------------
 tastypie_apiaccess                |          568891
 notifications_event               |          381227
 core_todo                         |          178614
 core_comment                      |          123969
 notifications_notification        |          102101
 django_session                    |           68078
 (truncated results for brevity)

This command displays an estimated count of rows per table, descending by estimated count. The estimated count is derived from n_live_tup, which is updated by vacuum operations. Due to the way n_live_tup is populated, sparse vs. dense pages can result in estimations that are significantly out from the real count of rows.

bloat

struct Bloat {
    typefield: String,
    schemaname: String,
    object_name: String,
    bloat: Decimal,
    waste: String,
}

bloat() -> Result<Vec<Bloat>, PgExtrasError> 

 type  | schemaname |           object_name         | bloat |   waste
-------+------------+-------------------------------+-------+----------
 table | public     | bloated_table                 |   1.1 | 98 MB
 table | public     | other_bloated_table           |   1.1 | 58 MB
 index | public     | bloated_table::bloated_index  |   3.7 | 34 MB
 table | public     | clean_table                   |   0.2 | 3808 kB
 table | public     | other_clean_table             |   0.3 | 1576 kB
 (truncated results for brevity)

This command displays an estimation of table "bloat" – space allocated to a relation that is full of dead tuples, that has yet to be reclaimed. Tables that have a high bloat ratio, typically 10 or greater, should be investigated to see if vacuuming is aggressive enough, and can be a sign of high table churn.

More info

vacuum_stats

struct VacuumStats {
    schema: String,
    table: String,
    last_vacuum: String,
    last_autovacuum: String,
    rowcount: String,
    dead_rowcount: String,
    autovacuum_threshold: String,
    expect_autovacuum: String,
}

vacuum_stats() -> Result<Vec<VacuumStats>, PgExtrasError> 

 schema |         table         | last_vacuum | last_autovacuum  |    rowcount    | dead_rowcount  | autovacuum_threshold | expect_autovacuum
--------+-----------------------+-------------+------------------+----------------+----------------+----------------------+-------------------
 public | log_table             |             | 2013-04-26 17:37 |         18,030 |              0 |          3,656       |
 public | data_table            |             | 2013-04-26 13:09 |             79 |             28 |             66       |
 public | other_table           |             | 2013-04-26 11:41 |             41 |             47 |             58       |
 public | queue_table           |             | 2013-04-26 17:39 |             12 |          8,228 |             52       | yes
 public | picnic_table          |             |                  |             13 |              0 |             53       |
 (truncated results for brevity)

This command displays statistics related to vacuum operations for each table, including an estimation of dead rows, last autovacuum and the current autovacuum threshold. This command can be useful when determining if current vacuum thresholds require adjustments, and to determine when the table was last vacuumed.

buffercache_stats

struct BuffercacheStats {
    relname: String,
    buffered: String,
    buffer_percent: Decimal,
    percent_of_relation: Decimal,
}

buffercache_stats() -> Result<Vec<BuffercacheStats>, PgExtrasError> 

This command shows the relations buffered in database share buffer, ordered by percentage taken. It also shows that how much of the whole relation is buffered.

buffercache_usage

struct BuffercacheUsage {
    relname: String,
    buffers: i64,
}

buffercache_usage() -> Result<Vec<BuffercacheUsage>, PgExtrasError> 

This command calculates how many blocks from which table are currently cached.

extensions

struct Extensions {
    name: String,
    default_version: String,
    installed_version: String,
    comment: String,
}

extensions() -> Result<Vec<Extensions>, PgExtrasError> 

This command lists all the currently installed and available PostgreSQL extensions.

connections

struct Connections {
    username: String,
    pid: i32,
    client_addr: String,
}

connections() -> Result<Vec<Connections>, PgExtrasError> 

+----------------------------------------------------------------+
|      Returns the list of all active database connections       |
+------------------+--------------------------+------------------+
| username | pid   | client_address           | application_name |
+------------------+--------------------------+------------------+
| postgres | 15962 | 172.31.69.166/32         | sidekiq          |
| postgres | 16810 | 172.31.69.166/32         | bin/rails        |
+------------------+--------------------------+------------------+

This command returns the list of all active database connections.

mandelbrot

struct Mandelbrot {
    array_to_string: String,
}

mandelbrot() -> Result<Vec<Mandelbrot>, PgExtrasError>

This command outputs the Mandelbrot set, calculated through SQL.

Testing

cp docker-compose.yml.sample docker-compose.yml
docker compose up -d
cargo test -- --nocapture

Query sources

Dependencies

~21–33MB
~596K SLoC