#blockchain #near #sdk #nearprotocol #dapp #smart-contracts #webassembly #derive #macro #near-protocol

near-sdk-contract-tools

Helpful functions and macros for developing smart contracts on NEAR Protocol

7 releases (stable)

2.1.0 Oct 30, 2023
2.0.0 Oct 26, 2023
1.1.1 Nov 6, 2023
1.1.0 Sep 14, 2023
0.7.2 Dec 16, 2022

#822 in Magic Beans

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GPL-3.0 license

245KB
5K SLoC

near-sdk-contract-tools

NFT

use near_sdk::{
    borsh::{self, BorshDeserialize, BorshSerialize},
    near_bindgen, PanicOnDefault,
};
+ use near_sdk_contract_tools::nft::*;

#[derive(BorshSerialize, BorshDeserialize, PanicOnDefault)]
+ #[derive(NonFungibleToken)]
#[near_bindgen]
pub struct MyNftContract {}

#[near_bindgen]
impl MyNftContract {
    #[init]
    pub fn new() -> Self {
        let mut contract = Self {};

+         contract.set_contract_metadata(ContractMetadata::new(
+             "My NFT".to_string(),
+             "MNFT".to_string(),
+             None,
+         ));

        contract
    }
}

FT

use near_sdk::{
    borsh::{self, BorshDeserialize, BorshSerialize},
    near_bindgen, PanicOnDefault,
};
+ use near_sdk_contract_tools::ft::*;

#[derive(BorshSerialize, BorshDeserialize, PanicOnDefault)]
+ #[derive(FungibleToken)]
#[near_bindgen]
pub struct MyFtContract {}

#[near_bindgen]
impl MyFtContract {
    #[init]
    pub fn new() -> Self {
        let mut contract = Self {};

+         contract.set_metadata(&FungibleTokenMetadata::new(
+             "My Fungible Token".into(),
+             "MYFT".into(),
+             24,
+         ));

        contract
    }
}

What is it?

This package is a collection of common tools and patterns in NEAR smart contract development:

  • Storage fee management.
  • Escrow pattern and derive macro.
  • Owner pattern and derive macro.
  • Pause pattern and derive macro.
  • Role-based access control.
  • Derive macros for NEP standards:

Not to be confused with near-contract-standards, which contains official implementations of standardized NEPs. This crate is intended to be a complement to near-contract-standards.

You can think of this collection of common tools and patterns (mostly in the form of derive macros) as a sort of OpenZeppelin for NEAR.

Pro tip: Use the contract wizard to generate starter code for your next project.

Installation

cargo add near-sdk-contract-tools

Examples

See also: the full integration tests.

Owner

use near_sdk::{near_bindgen, AccountId};
use near_sdk_contract_tools::{owner::Owner, Owner};

#[derive(Owner)]
#[near_bindgen]
struct Contract {
    // ...
}

#[near_bindgen]
impl Contract {
    #[init]
    pub fn new(owner_id: AccountId) -> Self {
        let mut contract = Self {
            // ...
        };

        Owner::init(&mut contract, &owner_id);

        contract
    }

    pub fn owner_only(&self) {
        Self::require_owner();

        // ...
    }
}

The Owner derive macro exposes the following methods to the blockchain:

fn own_get_owner(&self) -> Option<AccountId>;
fn own_get_proposed_owner(&self) -> Option<AccountId>;
fn own_renounce_owner(&mut self);
fn own_propose_owner(&mut self, account_id: Option<AccountId>);
fn own_accept_owner(&mut self);

Events

The #[event] macro can be applied to structs or enums.

use near_sdk_contract_tools::{event, standard::nep297::Event};

#[event(standard = "nft", version = "1.0.0")]
pub struct MintEvent {
    pub owner_id: String,
    pub token_id: String,
}

let e = MintEvent {
    owner_id: "account".to_string(),
    token_id: "token_1".to_string(),
};

// Emits the event to the blockchain
e.emit();

Fungible Token

To create a contract that is compatible with the NEP-141, NEP-145, and NEP-148 standards, that emits standard-compliant (NEP-297) events.

use near_sdk_contract_tools::ft::*;
use near_sdk::near_bindgen;

#[derive(FungibleToken)]
#[near_bindgen]
struct MyFt {}

#[near_bindgen]
impl MyFt {
    #[init]
    pub fn new() -> Self {
        let mut contract = Self {};

        contract.set_metadata(&FungibleTokenMetadata::new(
            "My Fungible Token".to_string(),
            "MYFT".to_string(),
            24,
        ));

        contract
    }
}

Standalone macros for each individual standard also exist.

Non-fungible Token

Use the NonFungibleToken derive macro to implement NEP-145, NEP-171, NEP-177, NEP-178, and NEP-181, with NEP-297 events.

use near_sdk::{
    borsh::{self, BorshSerialize, BorshDeserialize},
    PanicOnDefault,
    near_bindgen,
};
use near_sdk_contract_tools::nft::*;

#[derive(BorshSerialize, BorshDeserialize, PanicOnDefault, NonFungibleToken)]
#[near_bindgen]
pub struct MyNft {}

Macro Combinations

One may wish to combine the features of multiple macros in one contract. All of the macros are written such that they will work in a standalone manner, so this should largely work without issue. However, sometimes it may be desirable for the macros to work in combination with each other. For example, to make a fungible token pausable, use the fungible token hooks to require that a contract be unpaused before making a token transfer:

use near_sdk_contract_tools::{
    ft::*,
    pause::{*, hooks::PausableHook},
    Pause,
};
use near_sdk::{
    borsh::{self, BorshSerialize, BorshDeserialize},
    PanicOnDefault,
    near_bindgen,
};

#[derive(BorshSerialize, BorshDeserialize, PanicOnDefault, FungibleToken, Pause)]
#[fungible_token(all_hooks = "PausableHook")]
#[near_bindgen]
struct Contract {}

Custom Crates

If you are a library developer, have modified a crate that one of the near-sdk-contract-tools macros uses (like serde or near-sdk), or are otherwise using a crate under a different name, you can specify crate names in macros like so:

#[event(
    // ...
    crate = "near_sdk_contract_tools",
    macros = "near_sdk_contract_tools_macros",
    serde = "serde",
)]
// ...

#[derive(Owner)]
#[owner(
    // ...
    near_sdk = "near_sdk",
)]

Other Tips

Internal vs. External Methods

Internal methods are not available to be callable via the blockchain. External ones are public and can be called by other contracts.

Pull pattern

Proposing ownership (rather than transferring directly) is a generally good practice because it prevents you from accidentally transferring ownership to an account that nobody has access to, bricking the contract.

Expand

cargo expand will generate one huge Rust file with all of the macros have been processed:

cargo install cargo-expand
cargo expand > expanded.rs

Slots

See src/slot.rs. Slots are thin wrappers over a storage key.

assert_one_yocto()

near_sdk::assert_one_yocto() is a function that requires a full access key (by requiring a deposit of one yoctonear, the smallest possible unit of NEAR).

If a user connects their NEAR account to a dapp, the dapp will still not be able to call functions that call assert_one_yocto(), since function call access keys are not allowed to transfer native tokens. These function will require a signature from a full access key, usually involving a confirmation screen in the user's wallet.

Contributing

Setup

Run git config core.hooksPath hooks/ to set up commit hooks.

Build and test

Install cargo-make if it is not installed already:

cargo install cargo-make cargo-nextest

Run tests:

cargo nextest run
cargo test --doc
cd workspaces-tests
cargo make nextest

Audit

Version 1.0.0 of this library has been audited by Kudelski Security. (May 2023)

Authors


(Formerly known as near-contract-tools.)

Dependencies

~4.5MB
~89K SLoC