#methods #enum #state #machine #pattern

macro methods-enum

Attribute-like macro for ‘state’ and ‘state machine’ design patterns, without dyn Trait (based on generated enum)

8 releases

Uses new Rust 2021

0.2.4 Jul 3, 2022
0.2.3 Jun 26, 2022
0.1.5 Jun 21, 2022

#218 in Rust patterns

Download history 78/week @ 2022-06-10 33/week @ 2022-06-17 78/week @ 2022-06-24 122/week @ 2022-07-01 21/week @ 2022-07-08 32/week @ 2022-07-15 37/week @ 2022-07-22 55/week @ 2022-07-29 17/week @ 2022-08-05 14/week @ 2022-08-12 16/week @ 2022-08-19 26/week @ 2022-08-26 43/week @ 2022-09-02 16/week @ 2022-09-09

101 downloads per month

MIT/Apache

39KB
347 lines

methods_enum::gen(...) macro

crates.io Docs.rs

Lightweight (no dependencies) attribute-like macro for the "state" and "state machine" design patterns, without dyn Trait (based on an enum), displaying its output in doc comments.


The macro attribute is set before the direct impl block (no trait). Based on the method signatures of the impl block, it generates: enum with parameters from argument tuples and generates {} bodies of these methods with calling the argument handler method from this enum.
This allows the handler method to control the behavior of the methods depending on the context.

Macro call syntax

#[methods_enum::gen(EnumName , | : handler_name ( , | = OutName !? )? )]

where:

  • EnumName: The name of the automatically generated enum.
  • handler_name: Handler method name
  • OutName (in case of more than one return type and/or to specify a default return values): The name of an automatically generated enum with variants from the return types. See below for details on the OutName option.

Replacing the delimiter , after EnumName with : or before OutName with = will automatically add the #[derive(Debug)] attribute to the corresponding enum.

Usage example

Chapter 17.3 "Implementing an Object-Oriented Design Pattern" of the rust-book shows an implementation of the state pattern in rust that provides the following behavior:

fn main() {
    let mut post = blog::Post::new();

    post.add_text("I ate a salad for lunch today");
    assert_eq!("", post.content());

    post.request_review();
    assert_eq!("", post.content());

    post.approve();
    assert_eq!("I ate a salad for lunch today", post.content());
}

The dyn Trait option proposed in the book requires dynamic binding and duplication of logic. The option on different types is not applicable in cases where a single interface is required for states.

By setting in Cargo.toml:

[dependencies]
methods-enum = "0.2.4"

this can be solved, for example, like this:

# fn main() {
#     let mut post = blog::Post::new();
# 
#     post.add_text("I ate a salad for lunch today");
#     assert_eq!("", post.content());
# 
#     post.request_review();
#     assert_eq!("", post.content());
# 
#     post.approve();
#     assert_eq!("I ate a salad for lunch today", post.content());
# }
# 
mod blog {
    enum State {
        Draft,
        PendingReview,
        Published,
    }

    pub struct Post {
        state: State,
        content: String,
    }

    #[methods_enum::gen(Meth, run_methods)]
    impl Post {
        pub fn add_text(&mut self, text: &str);
        pub fn request_review(&mut self);
        pub fn approve(&mut self);
        pub fn content(&mut self) -> &str;

        fn run_methods(&mut self, method: Meth) -> &str {
            match self.state {
                State::Draft => match method {
                    Meth::add_text(text) => {
                        self.content.push_str(text);
                        ""
                    }
                    Meth::request_review() => {
                        self.state = State::PendingReview;
                        ""
                    }
                    _ => "",
                },
                State::PendingReview => match method {
                    Meth::approve() => {
                        self.state = State::Published;
                        ""
                    }
                    _ => "",
                },
                State::Published => match method {
                    Meth::content() => &self.content,
                    _ => "",
                },
            }
        }

        pub fn new() -> Post {
            Post { state: State::Draft, content: String::new() }
        }
    }
}

In the handler method (in this case, run_methods), simply write for each state which methods should work and how.

The macro duplicates the output for the compiler in the doc-comments. Therefore, in the IDE[^ide], you can always see the declaration of the generated enum and the generated method bodies, in the popup hint above the enum name:

enum popup hint

enum popup: bodies

[^ide]: IDE support tested on 'rust-analyzer for VS Code v0.3' - everything works: autocomplete, highlighting, tooltips, transitions, renames.
rust-analyzer may not expand proc-macro when running under nightly or old rust edition. In this case it is recommended to set in its settings: "rust-analyzer.server.extraEnv": { "RUSTUP_TOOLCHAIN": "stable" }

Alternatively, the entire result of a macro can be output to the console at compile time by setting the session environment variable M_ENUM_DBG to a value other than "0". PowerShell example:

PS > $Env:M_ENUM_DBG=1
PS > cargo build

This is worth doing when the compiler messages are not clear and referring to the macro line , so that for debugging, replace the impl block along with the attribute with the output of the macro.

Restrictions

  • The macro does not work on generic methods (including lifetime generics). As a general rule, methods with <...> before the argument list, with where before the body, or impl in the argument type declaration will be silently ignored for inclusion in enum.
  • The macro will ignore signatures with destructured arguments.
  • The macro ignores also methods with a mut prefix in front of a method argument name (except self): move such an argument to a mut variable in the body of the handler method.
  • The self form of all methods of the same enum must be the same and match the self form of the handler method. As a rule, it is either &mut self everywhere or self in methods + mut self in the handler method. However, it is allowed to group method signatures into multiple impl blocks with different enum and handler methods. See example below.

Details of the macro and use cases

The macro reads only its impl block and only up to the name of the handler method. From which it follows that all method signatures for enum must be located before the handler method or in a separate from it impl block.

The handler method always has two arguments: self in the form corresponding to the method signatures, and the enum declared in the macro (EnumName).

The following example demonstrates the use of methods with self in the form of a move, in a separate impl block from their handler, which also contains the signatures of the &mut self methods and both handlers.

Let's say that in the blog::Post task, the state-changing methods require the form self move, to work with dot notation, while the rest of the methods need to be left on the form &mut self, or:

fn main() {
    let mut post = blog::Post::new();

    post.add_text("I ate a salad for lunch today");
    assert_eq!("", post.content());

    assert_eq!("I ate a salad for lunch today", post.request_review().approve().content());
}

// In this case, the solution might be:

mod blog {
    enum State {
        Draft,
        PendingReview,
        Published,
    }

    pub struct Post {
        state: State,
        content: String,
    }

    #[methods_enum::gen(Move, run_move)]
    impl Post {
        pub fn request_review(self) -> Post;
        pub fn approve(self) -> Post;
    }

    #[methods_enum::gen(Meth, run_methods)]
    impl Post {
        pub fn add_text(&mut self, text: &str);
        pub fn content(&mut self) -> &str;

        fn run_methods(&mut self, method: Meth) -> &str {
            match self.state {
                State::Draft => match method {
                    Meth::add_text(text) => {
                        self.content.push_str(text);
                        ""
                    }
                    _ => "",
                },
                State::PendingReview => "",
                State::Published => match method {
                    Meth::content() => &self.content,
                    _ => "",
                },
            }
        }

        fn run_move(mut self, method: Move) -> Post {
            match self.state {
                State::Draft => match method {
                    Move::request_review() => {
                        self.state = State::PendingReview;
                        self
                    }
                    _ => self,
                },
                State::PendingReview => match method {
                    Move::approve() => {
                        self.state = State::Published;
                        self
                    }
                    _ => self,
                },
                State::Published => self,
            }
        }

        pub fn new() -> Post {
            Post { state: State::Draft, content: String::new() }
        }
    }
}

Here fn run_move and/or fn run_methods can also be placed at the end of the first impl block.

Associated functions (for the syntax without OutName also and regular methods) can be in the impl block and before the handler method, interspersed with method signatures, but this worsens readability.

The best option for readability is to separate the signatures for enum into a separate impl block, ending with a handler method.

Methods arguments with &mut types work the same way. For example, to extend the blog::Post task to:

fn main() {
    let mut post = blog::Post::new();

    let mut ext_content = "External content: ".to_string();

    post.add_text("I ate a salad for lunch today", &mut ext_content);
    assert_eq!("", post.content());
    assert_eq!("External content: I ate a salad for lunch today", ext_content);

    post.request_review();
    post.approve();
    assert_eq!("I ate a salad for lunch today", post.content());
}

// the solution might look like this:

mod blog {
// . . .                    
#   enum State {
#       Draft,
#       PendingReview,
#       Published,
#   }
#
#   pub struct Post {
#       state: State,
#       content: String,
#   }
#
// . . .                    
    #[methods_enum::gen(Meth, run_methods)]
    impl Post {
        pub fn add_text(&mut self, text: &str, ex_content: &mut String);
        pub fn request_review(&mut self);
        pub fn approve(&mut self);
        pub fn content(&mut self) -> &str;

        fn run_methods(&mut self, method: Meth) -> &str {
            match self.state {
                State::Draft => match method {
                    Meth::add_text(text, ex_cont) => {
                        self.content.push_str(text);
                        ex_cont.push_str(text);
                        ""
                    }
// . . .                    
#                   Meth::request_review() => {
#                       self.state = State::PendingReview;
#                       ""
#                   }
#                   _ => "",
#               },
#               State::PendingReview => match method {
#                   Meth::approve() => {
#                       self.state = State::Published;
#                       ""
#                   }
#                   _ => "",
#               },
#               State::Published => match method {
#                   Meth::content() => &self.content,
#                   _ => "",
#               },
#           }
#       }
#
#       pub fn new() -> Post {
#           Post { state: State::Draft, content: String::new() }
#       }
#   }
// . . .    
}

Syntax variant with OutName

#[methods_enum::gen(EnumName , | : handler_name , | = OutName !? )]

where:

  • OutName: The name of an automatically generated enum with variants from the return types.

Replacing the delimiter , before OutName with = will automatically add the #[derive(Debug)] attribute to the enum.

Setting ! after OutName enables checking the returned variant by its name, not by its type.

This variant allows you to go beyond one meaningful return type, but forces the handler method to enclose all return values in enum OutName. The unwrapping will be done in auto-generated method bodies.

enum OutName includes only variants with return types named like methods, and one variant named Unit for methods without return values or possibly as trigger for default values. In addition, the .stype() method of enum is generated, which returns a string representation of the enum value type for diagnostic messages.

In the generated method bodies, a variant of enum OutName that matches the type it contains with the return type in the method signature is unwrapped to the return type value, otherwise the method panics with a type mismatch message. If you want to panic if the enum variant OutName does not nominally match the method name, set the ! after OutName in the macro attribute.

It is possible to replace the type mismatch panic with a default expression by specifying it after the method signature in braces.

As an example, let's make all methods except content() of our blog::Post output a Result<&State, String> type, with Ok() reflects the Post state after the method and Err() - method impossibility message:

use blog::{Post, State};

fn main() {
    let mut post = Post::new();

    assert_eq!( post.add_text("I ate a salad for lunch today"), Ok(&State::Draft) );

    assert_eq!(
        post.approve(),
        Err("For State::Draft method 'approve' is not possible".to_string())
    );

    assert_eq!(post.request_review(), Ok(&State::PendingReview));
    assert_eq!(post.content(), "");

    assert_eq!(post.approve(), Ok(&State::Published));
    assert_eq!(post.content(), "I ate a salad for lunch today");
}

mod blog {

    #[derive(Debug, PartialEq, Clone, Copy)]
    pub enum State {
        Draft,
        PendingReview,
        Published,
    }

    pub struct Post {
        state: State,
        content: String,
    }

    #[methods_enum::gen(Meth: run_methods, Out)]
    impl Post {
        pub fn add_text(&mut self, text: &str) -> Result<&State, String>;
        pub fn request_review(&mut self) -> Result<&State, String>;
        pub fn approve(&mut self) -> Result<&State, String>;
        #[rustfmt::skip]
        pub fn content(&mut self) -> &str { "" } // default value

        fn run_methods(&mut self, method: Meth) -> Out {
            match self.state {
                State::Draft => match method {
                    Meth::add_text(text) => {
                        self.content.push_str(text);
                        Out::add_text(Ok(&self.state))
                    }
                    Meth::request_review() => {
                        self.state = State::PendingReview;
                        Out::request_review(Ok(&self.state))
                    }
                    m => self.method_not_possible(m),
                },

                State::PendingReview => match method {
                    Meth::approve() => {
                        self.state = State::Published;
                        Out::approve(Ok(&self.state))
                    }
                    m => self.method_not_possible(m),
                },

                State::Published => match method {
                    Meth::content() => Out::content(&self.content),
                    m => self.method_not_possible(m),
                },
            }
        }

        fn method_not_possible(&self, act: Meth) -> Out {
            Out::request_review(Err(format!(
                "For State::{:?} method '{act:?}' is not possible",
                self.state
            )))
        }

        pub fn new() -> Post {
            Post { state: State::Draft, content: String::new() }
        }
    }
}

The enum Out declaration and the generated method bodies can be seen in the tooltip:

enum popup hint

The macro passes the attributes and doc comments of the methods signatures to the compiler unchanged, without displaying them in the doc comment of the enum. Regular comments are skipped. enum popup: bodies

As you might guess from the last screenshot, the default value expression can use a return from a handler method in a variable with a name derived from OutName by converting it to lower case and preceding it with an underscore.

For example, if in the content() method we need to return not &str, but Result<&str, String>, then in the expression for the default value content() we should put the Err conversion from the Result<&State, String> to the type Result<&str, String>:

use blog::{Post, State};

fn main() {
// . . .
#    let mut post = Post::new();
#
#    assert_eq!( post.add_text("I ate a salad for lunch today"), Ok(&State::Draft) );
#
#    assert_eq!(
#        post.approve(),
#        Err("For State::Draft method 'approve' is not possible".to_string())
#    );
// . . .
    assert_eq!(post.request_review(), Ok(&State::PendingReview));
    assert_eq!(
        post.content(),
        Err("For State::PendingReview method 'content' is not possible".to_string())
    );

    assert_eq!(post.approve(), Ok(&State::Published));
    assert_eq!(post.content(), Ok("I ate a salad for lunch today"));
}

mod blog {
// . . .
#    #[derive(Debug, PartialEq, Clone, Copy)]
#    pub enum State {
#        Draft,
#        PendingReview,
#        Published,
#    }
#
#    pub struct Post {
#        state: State,
#        content: String,
#    }
// . . .
    #[methods_enum::gen(Meth: run_methods = Out)]
    impl Post {
        pub fn add_text(&mut self, text: &str) -> Result<&State, String>;
        pub fn request_review(&mut self) -> Result<&State, String>;
        pub fn approve(&mut self) -> Result<&State, String>;
        #[rustfmt::skip]
        pub fn content(&mut self) -> Result<&str, String> { match _out {
                    Out::request_review(Err(e)) => Err(e),   // default value
                    _ => panic!("Type mismatch in the content() method"), // never
                }}

        fn run_methods(&mut self, method: Meth) -> Out {
            match self.state {
// . . .
#               State::Draft => match method {
#                   Meth::add_text(text) => {
#                       self.content.push_str(text);
#                       Out::add_text(Ok(&self.state))
#                   }
#                   Meth::request_review() => {
#                       self.state = State::PendingReview;
#                       Out::request_review(Ok(&self.state))
#                   }
#                   m => self.method_not_possible(m),
#               },
#
#               State::PendingReview => match method {
#                   Meth::approve() => {
#                       self.state = State::Published;
#                       Out::approve(Ok(&self.state))
#                   }
#                   m => self.method_not_possible(m),
#               },
// . . .
                State::Published => match method {
                    Meth::content() => Out::content(Ok(&self.content)),
                    m => self.method_not_possible(m),
                },
// . . .
#           }
#       }
#
#       fn method_not_possible(&self, act: Meth) -> Out {
#           Out::request_review(Err(format!(
#               "For State::{:?} method '{act:?}' is not possible",
#               self.state
#           )))
#       }
#
#       pub fn new() -> Post {
#           Post { state: State::Draft, content: String::new() }
#       }
#   }
// . . .
}

enum popup hint

enum popup: bodies


All examples as .rs files plus state_machine.rs file and from_book-task_and_2_result.rs file with extension to book task and using Unit are located in the directory: https://github.com/vvshard/methods-enum/tree/master/tests

License

MIT or Apache-2.0 license of your choice.


No runtime deps