#maybe #async #futures #macros #proc-macro

macro maybe-async

A procedure macro to unify SYNC and ASYNC implementation

5 releases

0.2.2 Oct 19, 2020
0.2.1 Oct 5, 2020
0.2.0 Jun 24, 2020
0.1.3 Apr 22, 2020
0.1.1 Jan 15, 2020

#42 in Procedural macros

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Used in 5 crates (2 directly)

MIT license

35KB
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Maybe-Async Procedure Macro

Why bother writing similar code twice for blocking and async code?

Build Status MIT licensed Latest Version maybe-async

When implementing both sync and async versions of API in a crate, most API of the two version are almost the same except for some async/await keyword.

maybe-async help unifying async and sync implementation. Write async code with normal async, await, and let maybe_async handles those async and await when you need a synchronized code. Switch between sync and async by toggling is_sync feature gate. A handy macro to unify unit test code is also provided.

Key features

maybe-async offers three attribute macros: maybe_async, must_be_sync and must_be_async.

These macros can be applied to trait item, trait impl, function and struct impl.

  • must_be_async

    Keep async. Add async_trait attribute macro for trait declaration or implementation to bring async fn support in traits.

    To avoid having "Send" and "Sync" bounds placed on the async trait methods, invoke the maybe_async macro as #[must_be_async(?Send)].

  • must_be_sync

    Convert to sync code. Convert the async code into sync code by removing all async move, async and await keyword

  • maybe_async

    Offers a unified feature gate to provide sync and async conversion on demand by feature gate is_sync, with async first policy.

    Want to keep async code? add maybe_async in dependencies with default features, which means maybe_async is the same as must_be_async:

    [dependencies]
    maybe_async = "0.1"
    

    Wanna convert async code to sync? Add maybe_async to dependencies with an is_sync feature gate. In this way, maybe_async is the same as must_be_sync:

    [dependencies]
    maybe_async = { version = "0.1", features = ["is_sync"] }
    

    Not all async traits need futures that are dyn Future + Send. To avoid having "Send" and "Sync" bounds placed on the async trait methods, invoke the maybe_async macro as #[maybe_async(?Send)] on both the trait and the impl blocks.

  • sync_impl

    Although most of the API are almost the same, there definitely come to a point when the async and sync version should differ greatly. For example, a MongoDB client may use the same API for async and sync verison, but the code to actually send reqeust are quite different.

    Here, we can use sync_impl to mark a synchronous implementation, and a sync implementation shoule disappear when we want async version.

  • async_impl

    An async implementation shoule simply disappear when we want sync version.

    To avoid having "Send" and "Sync" bounds placed on the async trait methods, invoke the maybe_async macro as #[async_impl(?Send)].

  • test

    Handy macro to unify async and sync unit test code.

    You can specify the condition to compile to sync test code and also the conditions to compile to async test code with given test macro, e.x. tokio::test, async_std::test and etc. When only sync condition is specified,the test code only compiles when sync condition is met.

    # #[maybe_async::maybe_async]
    # async fn async_fn() -> bool {
    #    true
    # }
    
    #[maybe_async::test(
        feature="is_sync",
        async(all(not(feature="is_sync"), feature="async_std"), async_std::test),
       async(all(not(feature="is_sync"), feature="tokio"), tokio::test)
    )]
    async fn test_async_fn() {
        let res = async_fn().await;
        assert_eq!(res, true);
    }
    

Motivation

The async/await language feature alters the async world of rust. Comparing with the map/and_then style, now the async code really resembles sync version code.

In many crates, the async and sync version of crates shares the same API, but the minor difference that all async code must be awaited prevent the unification of async and sync code. In other words, an async and sync implementation must be written repectively.

Examples

rust client for services

When implementing rust client for any services, like awz3. The higher level API of async and sync version is almost the same, such as creating or deleting a bucket, retrieving an object and etc.

Here is a proof of concept that maybe_async can actually free us from writing almost the same code for sync and async.

type Response = String;
type Url = &'static str;
type Method = String;

/// InnerClient are used to actually send request,
/// which differ a lot between sync and async.
#[maybe_async::maybe_async]
trait InnerClient {
    async fn request(method: Method, url: Url, data: String) -> Response;
    #[inline]
    async fn post(url: Url, data: String) -> Response {
        Self::request(String::from("post"), url, data).await
    }
    #[inline]
    async fn delete(url: Url, data: String) -> Response {
        Self::request(String::from("delete"), url, data).await
    }
}

/// The higher level API for end user.
pub struct ServiceClient;

/// Code of upstream API are almost the same for sync and async,
/// except for async/await keyword.
impl ServiceClient {
    #[maybe_async::maybe_async]
    async fn create_bucket(name: String) -> Response {
        Self::post("http://correct_url4create", String::from("my_bucket")).await
    }
    #[maybe_async::maybe_async]
    async fn delete_bucket(name: String) -> Response {
        Self::delete("http://correct_url4delete", String::from("my_bucket")).await
    }
    // and another thousands of functions that interact with service side
}

/// Synchronous implementation, will be deleted when we want an async implementation.
/// Else the compiler will complain that *request is defined multiple times* and blabla.
#[maybe_async::sync_impl]
impl InnerClient for ServiceClient {
    fn request(method: Method, url: Url, data: String) -> Response {
        // your implementation for sync, like use
        // `reqwest::blocking` to send request
        String::from("pretend we have a response")
    }
}

/// Asynchronous implementation, will be deleted when we want a sync implementation
#[maybe_async::async_impl]
impl InnerClient for ServiceClient {
    async fn request(method: Method, url: Url, data: String) -> Response {
        // your implementation for async, like use `reqwest::client`
        // or `async_std` to send request
        String::from("pretend we have a response")
    }
}

With the code above, we can toggle between a sync AWZ3 client and async one by is_sync feature gate when we add maybe-async to dependency.

Example for maybe_async conversion

#[maybe_async::maybe_async(?Send)]
trait A {
    async fn async_fn_name() -> Result<(), ()> {
        Ok(())
    }
    fn sync_fn_name() -> Result<(), ()> {
        Ok(())
    }
}

struct Foo;

#[maybe_async::maybe_async(?Send)]
impl A for Foo {
    async fn async_fn_name() -> Result<(), ()> {
        Ok(())
    }
    fn sync_fn_name() -> Result<(), ()> {
        Ok(())
    }
}

#[maybe_async::maybe_async]
async fn maybe_async_fn() -> Result<(), ()> {
    let a = Foo::async_fn_name().await?;

    let b = Foo::sync_fn_name()?;
    Ok(())
}

When maybe-async feature gate is_sync is NOT set, the generated code is async code:

#[async_trait(?Send)]
trait A {
    async fn maybe_async_fn_name() -> Result<(), ()> {
        Ok(())
    }
    fn sync_fn_name() -> Result<(), ()> {
        Ok(())
    }
}

struct Foo;

#[async_trait(?Send)]
impl A for Foo {
    async fn maybe_async_fn_name() -> Result<(), ()> {
        Ok(())
    }
    fn sync_fn_name() -> Result<(), ()> {
        Ok(())
    }
}

async fn maybe_async_fn() -> Result<(), ()> {
    let a = Foo::maybe_async_fn_name().await?;
    let b = Foo::sync_fn_name()?;
    Ok(())
}

When maybe-async feature gate is_sync is set, all async keyword is ignored and yields a sync version code:

trait A {
    fn maybe_async_fn_name() -> Result<(), ()> {
        Ok(())
    }
    fn sync_fn_name() -> Result<(), ()> {
        Ok(())
    }
}

struct Foo;

impl A for Foo {
    fn maybe_async_fn_name() -> Result<(), ()> {
        Ok(())
    }
    fn sync_fn_name() -> Result<(), ()> {
        Ok(())
    }
}

fn maybe_async_fn() -> Result<(), ()> {
    let a = Foo::maybe_async_fn_name()?;
    let b = Foo::sync_fn_name()?;
    Ok(())
}

License

MIT

Dependencies

~375–800KB
~20K SLoC