#exchange #trading #simulation #backest #leverage


A leveraged perpetual futures exchange for simulated trading is a high performance backtesting exchange

26 releases

new 0.7.7 Jun 22, 2021
0.7.6 Jun 21, 2021
0.6.1 May 5, 2021
0.6.0 Apr 13, 2021
0.4.4 Feb 28, 2021

#66 in Algorithms

Download history 146/week @ 2021-02-25 90/week @ 2021-03-04 36/week @ 2021-03-11 3/week @ 2021-03-18 78/week @ 2021-03-25 33/week @ 2021-04-01 33/week @ 2021-04-08 44/week @ 2021-04-15 22/week @ 2021-04-22 52/week @ 2021-04-29 11/week @ 2021-05-06 20/week @ 2021-05-13 1/week @ 2021-05-20 16/week @ 2021-05-27 4/week @ 2021-06-03 85/week @ 2021-06-10

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Custom license


Leveraged Futures Exchange for Simulated Trading (LFEST)

⚠️ This is a personal project, use a your own risk.

⚠️ The results may not represent real trading results on any given exchange.

lfest-rs is a blazingly fast simulated exchange capable of leveraged positions. It gets fed external data either as a trade or a candle to update the internal state and check for order execution. For simplicity's sake (and performance) the exchange does not use an order book It also cross-leverages positions so the whole margin balance is used as collateral.

Order Types

The supported order types are:

  • market - aggressively execute against the best bid / ask
  • limit - passively place an order into the orderbook
  • stop_market - A protective but aggressive market order which is triggered at a specific price

Currently limit and stop_market orders may not work as expected. I advise you to only use market orders or fix limit and stop_order margin calculation and create a pull request.

Performance Metrics:

The following performance metrics are available through AccTracker struct:

  • win_ratio
  • profit_loss_ratio
  • total_rpnl
  • sharpe
  • sharpe_daily_returns
  • sortino
  • cumulative fees
  • sharpe_sterling_ratio
  • max_drawdown
  • max_upnl_drawdown
  • num_trades
  • turnover
  • trade_percentage
  • buy_ratio
  • limit_order_fill_ratio
  • limit_order_cancellation_ratio

Some of these metric may behave differently from what you would expect, so make sure to take a look at the code.

How to use

To use this crate in your project, add the following to your Cargo.toml:

lfest = "^0.7.0"

Then proceed to use it in your code.

Here is a basic example:

//! Example usage of Exchange using external trade data.
//! A randomly acting agent places market buy / sell orders every 100 candles

mod load_trades;

extern crate log;

use lfest::{Config, Exchange, Order, OrderError, Side};
use load_trades::load_prices_from_csv;
use rand::{thread_rng, Rng};
use std::time::Instant;

fn main() {
    let t0 = Instant::now();

    let config = Config {
        fee_maker: -0.00025,
        fee_taker: 0.001,
        starting_balance_base: 1.0,
        use_candles: false,
        leverage: 1.0,
    let mut exchange = Exchange::new(config);

    // load trades from csv file
    let prices = load_prices_from_csv("./data/Bitmex_XBTUSD_1M.csv").unwrap();

    // use random action every 100 trades to buy or sell
    let mut rng = thread_rng();

    for (i, p) in prices.iter().enumerate() {
        let (exec_orders, liq) = exchange.update_state(*p, *p, i as u64);
        if liq {
            // check liquidation
        println!("executed orders: {:?}", exec_orders);

        if i % 100 == 0 {
            // randomly buy or sell using a market order
            let r = rng.gen::<f64>();
            // Trade a fraction of the available wallet balance
            let order_size: f64 = exchange.account().margin().wallet_balance() * 0.1;
            let order: Order = if r > 0.5 {
                Order::market(Side::Sell, order_size).unwrap() // Sell using market order
            } else {
                Order::market(Side::Buy, order_size).unwrap() // Buy using market order
            // Handle order error here if needed
            let response: Result<Order, OrderError> = exchange.submit_order(order);
            match response {
                Ok(order) => println!("succesfully submitted order: {:?}", order),
                Err(order_err) => match order_err {
                    OrderError::MaxActiveOrders => {
                        error!("maximum number of active orders reached")
                    OrderError::InvalidLimitPrice => error!("invalid limit price of order"),
                    OrderError::InvalidTriggerPrice => error!("invalid trigger price of order"),
                    OrderError::InvalidOrderSize => error!("invalid order size"),
                    OrderError::NotEnoughAvailableBalance => {
                        error!("not enough available balance in account")
        "time to simulate 1 million historical trades and {} orders: {}ms",

/// analyze the resulting performance metrics of the traded orders
fn analyze_results(e: &Exchange) {
    let win_ratio = e.account().acc_tracker().win_ratio();
    let profit_loss_ratio = e.account().acc_tracker().profit_loss_ratio();
    let rpnl = e.account().acc_tracker().total_rpnl();
    let sharpe = e.account().acc_tracker().sharpe();
    let sortino = e.account().acc_tracker().sortino();
    let sterling_ratio = e.account().acc_tracker().sharpe_sterling_ratio();
    let max_drawdown = e.account().acc_tracker().max_drawdown();
    let max_upnl_drawdown = e.account().acc_tracker().max_upnl_drawdown();
    let num_trades = e.account().acc_tracker().num_trades();
    let turnover = e.account().acc_tracker().turnover();
    let buy_ratio = e.account().acc_tracker().buy_ratio();
    println!("win_ratio: {:.2}, profit_loss_ratio: {:.2}, rpnl: {:.2}, sharpe: {:.2}, sortino: {:.2}, sr: {:.2}, \
    dd: {:.2}, upnl_dd: {:.2}, #trades: {}, turnover: {}, buy_ratio: {:.2},",


  • proper order margin mechanism
  • proper liquidations
  • add order filter configuration such as min_qty and qty_precision
  • add max_num_limit_orders to config
  • add max_num_stop_orders to config
  • impl Display for Side and FuturesType


If you find a bug or would like to help out, feel free to create a pull-request.

Donations 💰 💸

I you would like to support the development of this crate, feel free to send over a donation:

Monero (XMR) address:




Copyright (C) 2020 <Mathis Wellmann wellmannmathis@gmail.com>

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Affero General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License along with this program. If not, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.



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