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0.1.7 Mar 24, 2022
0.1.6 Feb 24, 2022

#665 in Asynchronous

Download history 6/week @ 2023-12-17 4/week @ 2024-02-18 7/week @ 2024-02-25 2/week @ 2024-03-03 6/week @ 2024-03-10 137/week @ 2024-03-31

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gentian

This crate provides a proof-of-concept proc macro attribute that allows transforming generators to state machines. This crate will be used as an auxiliary tool for v2ray-rust.

Motivation

Rust's async and await are cool. But when you manually implement Future/Stream/Poll, the problem comes. Either give up a certain performance to extend the lifetime of the future and poll it or manually maintain the state machine. When the logic of poll is gradually complicated, the correctness of the state machine becomes more difficult to guarantee. Unstable Rust's standard library provides generator but it is not suitable for solving the above problems. In summary, this crate is to support using yield/yield return in a subset of rust's control flow. And, same as async and await, it will be compiled into state machines.

Example

use gentian::gentian;

#[cfg(test)]
struct MyGenerator {
    my_state_1: usize,
    pub my_state_2: usize,
    pub num: u32,
    pub num1: u32,
}

#[cfg(test)]
impl MyGenerator {
    pub fn new() -> MyGenerator {
        MyGenerator {
            my_state_1: 0,
            my_state_2: 0,
            num: 0,
            num1: 0,
        }
    }

    #[gentian]
    #[gentian_attr(state=self.my_state_1)]
    pub fn test_simple(&mut self) {
        loop {
            println!("Hello, ");
            //co_yield;
            while self.num1 < 99 {
                println!("Generator{}", self.num1);
                self.num1 += 1;
                co_yield;
            }
            return;
        }
    }

    // state_name , return_default_value
    #[gentian]
    #[gentian_attr(state=self.my_state_2,ret_val=0u32)]
    pub fn get_odd(&mut self) -> u32 {
        loop {
            if self.num % 2 == 1 {
                co_yield(self.num);
            }
            self.num += 1;
        }
    }
}

#[test]
fn test_generator_proc_macro() {
    let mut gen = MyGenerator::new();
    gen.test_simple(); // print Hello,
    for _ in 0..200 {
        gen.test_simple(); // only print 99 times `Generator`
    }
    gen.test_simple(); // print nothing
    assert_eq!(gen.num1, 99);
    for i in (1u32..1000).step_by(2) {
        assert_eq!(gen.get_odd(), i);
    }
}

Explanation

The following code is not a valid rust function but showing the logic of generating code.

pub fn poll_read_decrypted<R>(
    &mut self,
    ctx: &mut Context<'_>,
    r: &mut R,
    dst: &mut [u8],
    ) -> Poll<io::Result<(usize)>>
    where
    R: AsyncRead + Unpin,
    {
        co_yield;
        co_return(Poll::Pending);
        if cond1{
            f();
            co_return(Poll::Pending);
            g();
        }else{
            let c=p();
            co_return(Poll::Ready(Ok(c)));
            q();
        }
        'outer: loop {
            println!("Entered the outer loop");

            'inner: loop {
                println!("Entered the inner loop");

                // This would break only the inner loop
                //break;

                // This breaks the outer loop
                break 'outer;
            }

            println!("This point will never be reached");
        }
        loop{
            if cond2{
                return Poll::Ready();
            } else{
                break;
            }
        }
        loop{
            if cond3{
                println!("cond3 is true");
                continue;
            } else{
                break;
            }
        }
        while not_done{
            let c=do1();
            co_return(Poll::Ready(Ok(c)));
            do2();
            if cond4{
                break;
            }
        }
    }

The above code would be expanded as:

pub fn poll_read_decrypted<R>(
    &mut self,
    ctx: &mut Context<'_>,
    r: &mut R,
    dst: &mut [u8],
) -> Poll<io::Result<(usize)>>
where
    R: AsyncRead + Unpin,
{
    'genloop: loop {
        match state {
            50 => {
                break 'genloop;
            }
            0 => {
                state = 1;
                return;
            }
            1 => {
                state = 2;
                return Poll::Pending;
            }
            2 => {
                state = 18;
                if cond1 {
                    state = 3;
                    continue 'genloop;
                }
            }
            3 => {
                f();
                state = 4;
                return Poll::Pending;
            }
            4 => {
                g();
                state = 5;
            }
            5 => {
                println!("Entered the outer loop");
                println!("Entered the inner loop");
                state = 9;
                if cond2 {
                    state = 6;
                    continue 'genloop;
                }
            }
            6 => {
                state = 7;
                return Poll::Ready();
            }
            7 => {
                state = 50;
            }
            9 => {
                state = 12;
                if cond3 {
                    state = 10;
                    continue 'genloop;
                }
            }
            10 => {
                println!("cond3 is true");
                state = 9;
            }
            12 => {
                state = 7;
                if not_done {
                    state = 13;
                    continue 'genloop;
                }
            }
            13 => {
                let c = do1();
                state = 14;
                return Poll::Ready(Ok(c));
            }
            14 => {
                do2();
                state = 12;
                if cond4 {
                    state = 7;
                    continue 'genloop;
                }
            }
            18 => {
                let c = p();
                state = 19;
                return Poll::Ready(Ok(c));
            }
            19 => {
                q();
                state = 5;
            }
            _ => {
                break 'genloop;
            }
        }
    }
    return Poll::Pending;
}

The CFG (control flow graph) of above code is cfg_state

Dependencies

~2MB
~41K SLoC