#downcast #any #trait #associated #no_std

no-std downcast-rs

Trait object downcasting support using only safe Rust. It supports type parameters, associated types, and type constraints.

11 releases (stable)

1.2.0 Jun 30, 2020
1.1.1 Oct 28, 2019
1.0.4 Apr 9, 2019
1.0.3 May 22, 2018
0.1.0 Dec 16, 2015

#5 in Rust patterns

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71,989 downloads per month
Used in 447 crates (38 directly)

MIT/Apache

34KB
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downcast-rs

Build status Latest version Documentation

Rust enums are great for types where all variations are known beforehand. But a container of user-defined types requires an open-ended type like a trait object. Some applications may want to cast these trait objects back to the original concrete types to access additional functionality and performant inlined implementations.

downcast-rs adds this downcasting support to trait objects using only safe Rust. It supports type parameters, associated types, and constraints.

Usage

Add the following to your Cargo.toml:

[dependencies]
downcast-rs = "1.2.0"

This crate is no_std compatible. To use it without std:

[dependencies]
downcast-rs = { version = "1.2.0", default-features = false }

To make a trait downcastable, make it extend either downcast::Downcast or downcast::DowncastSync and invoke impl_downcast! on it as in the examples below.

Since 1.1.0, the minimum supported Rust version is 1.33 to support Rc and Arc in the receiver position.

trait Trait: Downcast {}
impl_downcast!(Trait);

// Also supports downcasting `Arc`-ed trait objects by extending `DowncastSync`
// and starting `impl_downcast!` with `sync`.
trait TraitSync: DowncastSync {}
impl_downcast!(sync TraitSync);

// With type parameters.
trait TraitGeneric1<T>: Downcast {}
impl_downcast!(TraitGeneric1<T>);

// With associated types.
trait TraitGeneric2: Downcast { type G; type H; }
impl_downcast!(TraitGeneric2 assoc G, H);

// With constraints on types.
trait TraitGeneric3<T: Copy>: Downcast {
    type H: Clone;
}
impl_downcast!(TraitGeneric3<T> assoc H where T: Copy, H: Clone);

// With concrete types.
trait TraitConcrete1<T: Copy>: Downcast {}
impl_downcast!(concrete TraitConcrete1<u32>);

trait TraitConcrete2<T: Copy>: Downcast { type H; }
impl_downcast!(concrete TraitConcrete2<u32> assoc H=f64);

Example without generics

// Import macro via `macro_use` pre-1.30.
#[macro_use]
extern crate downcast_rs;
use downcast_rs::DowncastSync;

// To create a trait with downcasting methods, extend `Downcast` or `DowncastSync`
// and run `impl_downcast!()` on the trait.
trait Base: DowncastSync {}
impl_downcast!(sync Base);  // `sync` => also produce `Arc` downcasts.

// Concrete types implementing Base.
#[derive(Debug)]
struct Foo(u32);
impl Base for Foo {}
#[derive(Debug)]
struct Bar(f64);
impl Base for Bar {}

fn main() {
    // Create a trait object.
    let mut base: Box<Base> = Box::new(Foo(42));

    // Try sequential downcasts.
    if let Some(foo) = base.downcast_ref::<Foo>() {
        assert_eq!(foo.0, 42);
    } else if let Some(bar) = base.downcast_ref::<Bar>() {
        assert_eq!(bar.0, 42.0);
    }

    assert!(base.is::<Foo>());

    // Fail to convert `Box<Base>` into `Box<Bar>`.
    let res = base.downcast::<Bar>();
    assert!(res.is_err());
    let base = res.unwrap_err();
    // Convert `Box<Base>` into `Box<Foo>`.
    assert_eq!(42, base.downcast::<Foo>().map_err(|_| "Shouldn't happen.").unwrap().0);

    // Also works with `Rc`.
    let mut rc: Rc<Base> = Rc::new(Foo(42));
    assert_eq!(42, rc.downcast_rc::<Foo>().map_err(|_| "Shouldn't happen.").unwrap().0);

    // Since this trait is `Sync`, it also supports `Arc` downcasts.
    let mut arc: Arc<Base> = Arc::new(Foo(42));
    assert_eq!(42, arc.downcast_arc::<Foo>().map_err(|_| "Shouldn't happen.").unwrap().0);
}

Example with a generic trait with associated types and constraints

// Can call macro via namespace since rust 1.30.
extern crate downcast_rs;
use downcast_rs::Downcast;

// To create a trait with downcasting methods, extend `Downcast` or `DowncastSync`
// and run `impl_downcast!()` on the trait.
trait Base<T: Clone>: Downcast { type H: Copy; }
downcast_rs::impl_downcast!(Base<T> assoc H where T: Clone, H: Copy);
// or: impl_downcast!(concrete Base<u32> assoc H=f32)

// Concrete types implementing Base.
struct Foo(u32);
impl Base<u32> for Foo { type H = f32; }
struct Bar(f64);
impl Base<u32> for Bar { type H = f32; }

fn main() {
    // Create a trait object.
    let mut base: Box<Base<u32, H=f32>> = Box::new(Bar(42.0));

    // Try sequential downcasts.
    if let Some(foo) = base.downcast_ref::<Foo>() {
        assert_eq!(foo.0, 42);
    } else if let Some(bar) = base.downcast_ref::<Bar>() {
        assert_eq!(bar.0, 42.0);
    }

    assert!(base.is::<Bar>());
}

License

Copyright 2020, Ashish Myles (maintainer) and contributors. This software is dual-licensed under the MIT and Apache 2.0 licenses.

Contribution

Unless you explicitly state otherwise, any contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the work by you, as defined in the Apache-2.0 license, shall be dual licensed as above, without any additional terms or conditions.

No runtime deps

Features

  • std