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#1455 in Magic Beans

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cw-storage-plus: Storage abstractions for CosmWasm

This has been heavily used in many production-quality contracts. The code has demonstrated itself to be stable and powerful. It has not been audited, and Confio assumes no liability, but we consider it mature enough to be the standard storage layer for your contracts.

Usage Overview

We introduce two main classes to provide a productive abstraction on top of cosmwasm_std::Storage. They are Item, which is a typed wrapper around one database key, providing some helper functions for interacting with it without dealing with raw bytes. And Map, which allows you to store multiple unique typed objects under a prefix, indexed by a simple or compound (eg. (&[u8], &[u8])) primary key.

Item

The usage of an Item is pretty straight-forward. You must simply provide the proper type, as well as a database key not used by any other item. Then it will provide you with a nice interface to interact with such data.

If you are coming from using Singleton, the biggest change is that we no longer store Storage inside, meaning we don't need read and write variants of the object, just one type. Furthermore, we use const fn to create the Item, allowing it to be defined as a global compile-time constant rather than a function that must be constructed each time, which saves gas as well as typing.

Example Usage:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, PartialEq, Debug)]
struct Config {
    pub owner: String,
    pub max_tokens: i32,
}

// note const constructor rather than 2 functions with Singleton
const CONFIG: Item<Config> = Item::new("config");

fn demo() -> StdResult<()> {
    let mut store = MockStorage::new();

    // may_load returns Option<T>, so None if data is missing
    // load returns T and Err(StdError::NotFound{}) if data is missing
    let empty = CONFIG.may_load(&store)?;
    assert_eq!(None, empty);
    let cfg = Config {
        owner: "admin".to_string(),
        max_tokens: 1234,
    };
    CONFIG.save(&mut store, &cfg)?;
    let loaded = CONFIG.load(&store)?;
    assert_eq!(cfg, loaded);

    // update an item with a closure (includes read and write)
    // returns the newly saved value
    let output = CONFIG.update(&mut store, |mut c| -> StdResult<_> {
        c.max_tokens *= 2;
        Ok(c)
    })?;
    assert_eq!(2468, output.max_tokens);

    // you can error in an update and nothing is saved
    let failed = CONFIG.update(&mut store, |_| -> StdResult<_> {
        Err(StdError::generic_err("failure mode"))
    });
    assert!(failed.is_err());

    // loading data will show the first update was saved
    let loaded = CONFIG.load(&store)?;
    let expected = Config {
        owner: "admin".to_string(),
        max_tokens: 2468,
    };
    assert_eq!(expected, loaded);

    // we can remove data as well
    CONFIG.remove(&mut store);
    let empty = CONFIG.may_load(&store)?;
    assert_eq!(None, empty);

    Ok(())
}

Map

The usage of a Map is a little more complex, but is still pretty straight-forward. You can imagine it as a storage-backed BTreeMap, allowing key-value lookups with typed values. In addition, we support not only simple binary keys (like &[u8]), but tuples, which are combined. This allows us by example to store allowances as composite keys, i.e. (owner, spender) to look up the balance.

Beyond direct lookups, we have a super-power not found in Ethereum - iteration. That's right, you can list all items in a Map, or only part of them. We can efficiently allow pagination over these items as well, starting at the point the last query ended, with low gas costs. This requires the iterator feature to be enabled in cw-storage-plus (which automatically enables it in cosmwasm-std as well, and which is enabled by default).

If you are coming from using Bucket, the biggest change is that we no longer store Storage inside, meaning we don't need read and write variants of the object, just one type. Furthermore, we use const fn to create the Bucket, allowing it to be defined as a global compile-time constant rather than a function that must be constructed each time, which saves gas as well as typing. In addition, the composite indexes (tuples) are more ergonomic and expressive of intention, and the range interface has been improved.

Here is an example with normal (simple) keys:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, PartialEq, Debug, Clone)]
struct Data {
    pub name: String,
    pub age: i32,
}

const PEOPLE: Map<&str, Data> = Map::new("people");

fn demo() -> StdResult<()> {
    let mut store = MockStorage::new();
    let data = Data {
        name: "John".to_string(),
        age: 32,
    };

    // load and save with extra key argument
    let empty = PEOPLE.may_load(&store, "john")?;
    assert_eq!(None, empty);
    PEOPLE.save(&mut store, "john", &data)?;
    let loaded = PEOPLE.load(&store, "john")?;
    assert_eq!(data, loaded);

    // nothing on another key
    let missing = PEOPLE.may_load(&store, "jack")?;
    assert_eq!(None, missing);

    // update function for new or existing keys
    let birthday = |d: Option<Data>| -> StdResult<Data> {
        match d {
            Some(one) => Ok(Data {
                name: one.name,
                age: one.age + 1,
            }),
            None => Ok(Data {
                name: "Newborn".to_string(),
                age: 0,
            }),
        }
    };

    let old_john = PEOPLE.update(&mut store, "john", birthday)?;
    assert_eq!(33, old_john.age);
    assert_eq!("John", old_john.name.as_str());

    let new_jack = PEOPLE.update(&mut store, "jack", birthday)?;
    assert_eq!(0, new_jack.age);
    assert_eq!("Newborn", new_jack.name.as_str());

    // update also changes the store
    assert_eq!(old_john, PEOPLE.load(&store, "john")?);
    assert_eq!(new_jack, PEOPLE.load(&store, "jack")?);

    // removing leaves us empty
    PEOPLE.remove(&mut store, "john");
    let empty = PEOPLE.may_load(&store, "john")?;
    assert_eq!(None, empty);

    Ok(())
}

Key types

A Map key can be anything that implements the PrimaryKey trait. There are a series of implementations of PrimaryKey already provided (see keys.rs):

  • impl<'a> PrimaryKey<'a> for &'a [u8]
  • impl<'a> PrimaryKey<'a> for &'a str
  • impl<'a> PrimaryKey<'a> for Vec<u8>
  • impl<'a> PrimaryKey<'a> for String
  • impl<'a> PrimaryKey<'a> for Addr
  • impl<'a, const N: usize> PrimaryKey<'a> for [u8; N]
  • impl<'a, T: Prefixer<'a>> Prefixer<'a> for &'a T
  • impl<'a, T: PrimaryKey<'a> + Prefixer<'a>, U: PrimaryKey<'a>> PrimaryKey<'a> for (T, U)
  • impl<'a, T: PrimaryKey<'a> + Prefixer<'a>, U: PrimaryKey<'a> + Prefixer<'a>, V: PrimaryKey<'a>> PrimaryKey<'a> for (T, U, V)
  • PrimaryKey implemented for unsigned integers up to u128
  • PrimaryKey implemented for signed integers up to i128

That means that byte and string slices, byte vectors, and strings, can be conveniently used as keys. Moreover, some other types can be used as well, like addresses and address references, pairs, triples, and integer types.

If the key represents an address, we suggest using &Addr for keys in storage, instead of String or string slices. This implies doing address validation through addr_validate on any address passed in via a message, to ensure it's a legitimate address, and not random text which will fail later. pub fn addr_validate(&self, &str) -> Addr in deps.api can be used for address validation, and the returned Addr can then be conveniently used as key in a Map or similar structure.

It's also convenient to use references (i.e. borrowed values) instead of values for keys (i.e. &Addr instead of Addr), as that will typically save some cloning during key reading / writing.

Composite Keys

There are times when we want to use multiple items as a key. For example, when storing allowances based on account owner and spender. We could try to manually concatenate them before calling, but that can lead to overlap, and is a bit low-level for us. Also, by explicitly separating the keys, we can easily provide helpers to do range queries over a prefix, such as "show me all allowances for one owner" (first part of the composite key). Just like you'd expect from your favorite database.

Here's how we use it with composite keys. Just define a tuple as a key and use that everywhere you used a single key above.

// Note the tuple for primary key. We support one slice, or a 2 or 3-tuple.
// Adding longer tuples is possible, but unlikely to be needed.
const ALLOWANCE: Map<(&str, &str), u64> = Map::new("allow");

fn demo() -> StdResult<()> {
    let mut store = MockStorage::new();

    // save and load on a composite key
    let empty = ALLOWANCE.may_load(&store, ("owner", "spender"))?;
    assert_eq!(None, empty);
    ALLOWANCE.save(&mut store, ("owner", "spender"), &777)?;
    let loaded = ALLOWANCE.load(&store, ("owner", "spender"))?;
    assert_eq!(777, loaded);

    // doesn't appear under other key (even if a concat would be the same)
    let different = ALLOWANCE.may_load(&store, ("owners", "pender")).unwrap();
    assert_eq!(None, different);

    // simple update
    ALLOWANCE.update(&mut store, ("owner", "spender"), |v| {
        Ok(v.unwrap_or_default() + 222)
    })?;
    let loaded = ALLOWANCE.load(&store, ("owner", "spender"))?;
    assert_eq!(999, loaded);

    Ok(())
}

Path

Under the scenes, we create a Path from the Map when accessing a key. PEOPLE.load(&store, "jack") == PEOPLE.key("jack").load(). Map.key() returns a Path, which has the same interface as Item, re-using the calculated path to this key.

For simple keys, this is just a bit less typing and a bit less gas if you use the same key for many calls. However, for composite keys, like ("owner", "spender") it is much less typing. And highly recommended anywhere you will use a composite key even twice:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, PartialEq, Debug, Clone)]
struct Data {
    pub name: String,
    pub age: i32,
}

const PEOPLE: Map<&str, Data> = Map::new("people");
const ALLOWANCE: Map<(&str, &str), u64> = Map::new("allow");

fn demo() -> StdResult<()> {
    let mut store = MockStorage::new();
    let data = Data {
        name: "John".to_string(),
        age: 32,
    };

    // create a Path one time to use below
    let john = PEOPLE.key("john");

    // Use this just like an Item above
    let empty = john.may_load(&store)?;
    assert_eq!(None, empty);
    john.save(&mut store, &data)?;
    let loaded = john.load(&store)?;
    assert_eq!(data, loaded);
    john.remove(&mut store);
    let empty = john.may_load(&store)?;
    assert_eq!(None, empty);

    // Same for composite keys, just use both parts in `key()`.
    // Notice how much less verbose than the above example.
    let allow = ALLOWANCE.key(("owner", "spender"));
    allow.save(&mut store, &1234)?;
    let loaded = allow.load(&store)?;
    assert_eq!(1234, loaded);
    allow.update(&mut store, |x| Ok(x.unwrap_or_default() * 2))?;
    let loaded = allow.load(&store)?;
    assert_eq!(2468, loaded);

    Ok(())
}

Prefix

In addition to getting one particular item out of a map, we can iterate over the map (or a subset of the map). This let us answer questions like "show me all tokens", and we provide some nice Bound helpers to easily allow pagination or custom ranges.

The general format is to get a Prefix by calling map.prefix(k), where k is exactly one less item than the normal key (If map.key() took (&[u8], &[u8]), then map.prefix() takes &[u8]. If map.key() took &[u8], map.prefix() takes ()). Once we have a prefix space, we can iterate over all items with range(store, min, max, order). It supports Order::Ascending or Order::Descending. min is the lower bound and max is the higher bound.

If the min and max bounds are None, range will return all items under the prefix. You can use .take(n) to limit the results to n items and start doing pagination. You can also set the min bound to eg. Bound::exclusive(last_value) to start iterating over all items after the last value. Combined with take, we easily have pagination support. You can also use Bound::inclusive(x) when you want to include any perfect matches.

Bound

Bound is a helper to build type-safe bounds on the keys or sub-keys you want to iterate over. It also supports a raw (Vec<u8>) bounds specification, for the cases you don't want or can't use typed bounds.

#[derive(Clone, Debug)]
pub enum Bound<'a, K: PrimaryKey<'a>> {
  Inclusive((K, PhantomData<&'a bool>)),
  Exclusive((K, PhantomData<&'a bool>)),
  InclusiveRaw(Vec<u8>),
  ExclusiveRaw(Vec<u8>),
}

To better understand the API, please check the following example:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, PartialEq, Debug, Clone)]
struct Data {
    pub name: String,
    pub age: i32,
}

const PEOPLE: Map<&str, Data> = Map::new("people");
const ALLOWANCE: Map<(&str, &str), u64> = Map::new("allow");

fn demo() -> StdResult<()> {
    let mut store = MockStorage::new();

    // save and load on two keys
    let data = Data { name: "John".to_string(), age: 32 };
    PEOPLE.save(&mut store, "john", &data)?;
    let data2 = Data { name: "Jim".to_string(), age: 44 };
    PEOPLE.save(&mut store, "jim", &data2)?;

    // iterate over them all
    let all: StdResult<Vec<_>> = PEOPLE
        .range(&store, None, None, Order::Ascending)
        .collect();
    assert_eq!(
        all?,
        vec![("jim".to_vec(), data2), ("john".to_vec(), data.clone())]
    );

    // or just show what is after jim
    let all: StdResult<Vec<_>> = PEOPLE
        .range(
            &store,
            Some(Bound::exclusive("jim")),
            None,
            Order::Ascending,
        )
        .collect();
    assert_eq!(all?, vec![("john".to_vec(), data)]);

    // save and load on three keys, one under different owner
    ALLOWANCE.save(&mut store, ("owner", "spender"), &1000)?;
    ALLOWANCE.save(&mut store, ("owner", "spender2"), &3000)?;
    ALLOWANCE.save(&mut store, ("owner2", "spender"), &5000)?;

    // get all under one key
    let all: StdResult<Vec<_>> = ALLOWANCE
        .prefix("owner")
        .range(&store, None, None, Order::Ascending)
        .collect();
    assert_eq!(
        all?,
        vec![("spender".to_vec(), 1000), ("spender2".to_vec(), 3000)]
    );

    // Or ranges between two items (even reverse)
    let all: StdResult<Vec<_>> = ALLOWANCE
        .prefix("owner")
        .range(
            &store,
            Some(Bound::exclusive("spender")),
            Some(Bound::inclusive("spender2")),
            Order::Descending,
        )
        .collect();
    assert_eq!(all?, vec![("spender2".to_vec(), 3000)]);

    Ok(())
}

NB: For properly defining and using type-safe bounds over a MultiIndex, see Type-safe bounds over MultiIndex, below.

IndexedMap

Let's see one example of IndexedMap definition and usage, originally taken from the cw721-base contract.

Definition

pub struct TokenIndexes<'a> {
  pub owner: MultiIndex<'a, Addr, TokenInfo, String>,
}

impl<'a> IndexList<TokenInfo> for TokenIndexes<'a> {
  fn get_indexes(&'_ self) -> Box<dyn Iterator<Item = &'_ dyn Index<TokenInfo>> + '_> {
    let v: Vec<&dyn Index<TokenInfo>> = vec![&self.owner];
    Box::new(v.into_iter())
  }
}

pub fn tokens<'a>() -> IndexedMap<'a, &'a str, TokenInfo, TokenIndexes<'a>> {
  let indexes = TokenIndexes {
    owner: MultiIndex::new(
      |d: &TokenInfo| d.owner.clone(),
      "tokens",
      "tokens__owner",
    ),
  };
  IndexedMap::new("tokens", indexes)
}

Let's discuss this piece by piece:

pub struct TokenIndexes<'a> {
  pub owner: MultiIndex<'a, Addr, TokenInfo, String>,
}

These are the index definitions. Here there's only one index, called owner. There could be more, as public members of the TokenIndexes struct. We see that the owner index is a MultiIndex. A multi-index can have repeated values as keys. The primary key is used internally as the last element of the multi-index key, to disambiguate repeated index values. Like the name implies, this is an index over tokens, by owner. Given that an owner can have multiple tokens, we need a MultiIndex to be able to list / iterate over all the tokens he has.

The TokenInfo data will originally be stored by token_id (which is a string value). You can see this in the token creation code:

    tokens().update(deps.storage, &msg.token_id, |old| match old {
        Some(_) => Err(ContractError::Claimed {}),
        None => Ok(token),
    })?;

(Incidentally, this is using update instead of save, to avoid overwriting an already existing token).

Given that token_id is a string value, we specify String as the last argument of the MultiIndex definition. That way, the deserialization of the primary key will be done to the right type (an owned string).

NB: In the particular case of a MultiIndex, and with the latest implementation of type-safe bounds, the definition of this last type parameter is crucial, for properly using type-safe bounds. See Type-safe bounds over MultiIndex, below.

Then, this TokenInfo data will be indexed by token owner (which is an Addr). So that we can list all the tokens an owner has. That's why the owner index key is Addr.

Other important thing here is that the key (and its components, in the case of a composite key) must implement the PrimaryKey trait. You can see that Addr does implement PrimaryKey:

impl<'a> PrimaryKey<'a> for Addr {
  type Prefix = ();
  type SubPrefix = ();
  type Suffix = Self;
  type SuperSuffix = Self;

  fn key(&self) -> Vec<Key> {
    // this is simple, we don't add more prefixes
    vec![Key::Ref(self.as_bytes())]
  }
}

We can now see how it all works, taking a look at the remaining code:

impl<'a> IndexList<TokenInfo> for TokenIndexes<'a> {
    fn get_indexes(&'_ self) -> Box<dyn Iterator<Item = &'_ dyn Index<TokenInfo>> + '_> {
        let v: Vec<&dyn Index<TokenInfo>> = vec![&self.owner];
        Box::new(v.into_iter())
    }
}

This implements the IndexList trait for TokenIndexes.

NB: this code is more or less boiler-plate, and needed for the internals. Do not try to customize this; just return a list of all indexes. Implementing this trait serves two purposes (which are really one and the same): it allows the indexes to be queried through get_indexes, and, it allows TokenIndexes to be treated as an IndexList. So that it can be passed as a parameter during IndexedMap construction, below:

pub fn tokens<'a>() -> IndexedMap<'a, &'a str, TokenInfo, TokenIndexes<'a>> {
    let indexes = TokenIndexes {
        owner: MultiIndex::new(
            |d: &TokenInfo| d.owner.clone(),
            "tokens",
            "tokens__owner",
        ),
    };
    IndexedMap::new("tokens", indexes)
}

Here tokens() is just a helper function, that simplifies the IndexedMap construction for us. First the index (es) is (are) created, and then, the IndexedMap is created and returned.

During index creation, we must supply an index function per index

        owner: MultiIndex::new(|d: &TokenInfo| d.owner.clone(),

which is the one that will take the value of the original map and create the index key from it. Of course, this requires that the elements required for the index key are present in the value. Besides the index function, we must also supply the namespace of the pk, and the one for the new index.


After that, we just create and return the IndexedMap:

    IndexedMap::new("tokens", indexes)

Here of course, the namespace of the pk must match the one used during index(es) creation. And, we pass our TokenIndexes (as an IndexList-type parameter) as second argument. Connecting in this way the underlying Map for the pk, with the defined indexes.

So, IndexedMap (and the other Indexed* types) is just a wrapper / extension around Map, that provides a number of index functions and namespaces to create indexes over the original Map data. It also implements calling these index functions during value storage / update / removal, so that you can forget about it, and just use the indexed data.

Usage

An example of use, where owner is a String value passed as a parameter, and start_after and limit optionally define the pagination range:

Notice this uses prefix(), explained above in the Map section.

    let limit = limit.unwrap_or(DEFAULT_LIMIT).min(MAX_LIMIT) as usize;
    let start = start_after.map(Bound::exclusive);
    let owner_addr = deps.api.addr_validate(&owner)?;

    let res: Result<Vec<_>, _> = tokens()
        .idx
        .owner
        .prefix(owner_addr)
        .range(deps.storage, start, None, Order::Ascending)
        .take(limit)
        .collect();
    let tokens = res?;

Now tokens contains (token_id, TokenInfo) pairs for the given owner. The pk values are Vec<u8> in the case of range_raw(), but will be deserialized to the proper type using range(); provided that the pk deserialization type (String, in this case) is correctly specified in the MultiIndex definition (see Index keys deserialization, below).

Another example that is similar, but returning only the (raw) token_ids, using the keys_raw() method:

    let pks: Vec<_> = tokens()
        .idx
        .owner
        .prefix(owner_addr)
        .keys_raw(
            deps.storage,
            start,
            None,
            Order::Ascending,
        )
        .take(limit)
        .collect();

Now pks contains token_id values (as raw Vec<u8>s) for the given owner. By using keys instead, a deserialized key can be obtained, as detailed in the next section.

Index keys deserialization

For UniqueIndex and MultiIndex, the primary key (PK) type needs to be specified, in order to deserialize the primary key to it. This PK type specification is also important for MultiIndex type-safe bounds, as the primary key is part of the multi-index key. See next section, Type-safe bounds over MultiIndex.

NB: This specification is still a manual (and therefore error-prone) process / setup, that will (if possible) be automated in the future (https://github.com/CosmWasm/cw-plus/issues/531).

Type-safe bounds over MultiIndex

In the particular case of MultiIndex, the primary key (PK) type parameter also defines the type of the (partial) bounds over the index key (the part that corresponds to the primary key, that is). So, to correctly use type-safe bounds over multi-indexes ranges, it is fundamental for this PK type to be correctly defined, so that it matches the primary key type, or its (typically owned) deserialization variant.

Deque

The usage of a Deque is pretty straight-forward. Conceptually it works like a storage-backed version of Rust std's Deque and can be used as a queue or stack. It allows you to push and pop elements on both ends and also read the first or last element without mutating the deque. You can also read a specific index directly.

Example Usage:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, PartialEq, Debug, Clone)]
struct Data {
    pub name: String,
    pub age: i32,
}

const DATA: Deque<Data> = Deque::new("data");

fn demo() -> StdResult<()> {
    let mut store = MockStorage::new();

    // read methods return a wrapped Option<T>, so None if the deque is empty
    let empty = DATA.front(&store)?;
    assert_eq!(None, empty);

    // some example entries
    let p1 = Data {
        name: "admin".to_string(),
        age: 1234,
    };
    let p2 = Data {
        name: "user".to_string(),
        age: 123,
    };

    // use it like a queue by pushing and popping at opposite ends
    DATA.push_back(&mut store, &p1)?;
    DATA.push_back(&mut store, &p2)?;

    let admin = DATA.pop_front(&mut store)?;
    assert_eq!(admin.as_ref(), Some(&p1));
    let user = DATA.pop_front(&mut store)?;
    assert_eq!(user.as_ref(), Some(&p2));

    // or push and pop at the same end to use it as a stack
    DATA.push_back(&mut store, &p1)?;
    DATA.push_back(&mut store, &p2)?;

    let user = DATA.pop_back(&mut store)?;
    assert_eq!(user.as_ref(), Some(&p2));
    let admin = DATA.pop_back(&mut store)?;
    assert_eq!(admin.as_ref(), Some(&p1));

    // you can also iterate over it
    DATA.push_front(&mut store, &p1)?;
    DATA.push_front(&mut store, &p2)?;

    let all: StdResult<Vec<_>> = DATA.iter(&store)?.collect();
    assert_eq!(all?, [p2, p1]);

    // or access an index directly
    assert_eq!(DATA.get(&store, 0)?, Some(p2));
    assert_eq!(DATA.get(&store, 1)?, Some(p1));
    assert_eq!(DATA.get(&store, 3)?, None);

    Ok(())
}

Dependencies

~3.5–5MB
~109K SLoC