#color #terminal #ansi #terminfo

color-print

Colorize and stylize strings for terminal at compile-time, by using an HTML-like syntax

5 unstable releases

0.3.5 Sep 3, 2023
0.3.4 Oct 13, 2022
0.3.2 Aug 29, 2021
0.2.0 Aug 26, 2021
0.1.0 Aug 25, 2021

#21 in Command-line interface

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Used in 57 crates (35 directly)

MIT/Apache

46KB
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color-print

Colorize and stylize strings for terminal at compile-time, by using an HTML-like syntax.

This library provides the following macros:

  • cformat!(<FORMAT_STRING> [, ARGS...])
  • cprint!(<FORMAT_STRING> [, ARGS...])
  • cprintln!(<FORMAT_STRING> [, ARGS...])
  • cstr!(<FORMAT_STRING>)
  • untagged!(<FORMAT_STRING>)

cformat!(), cprint!(), and cprintln!() have the same syntax as format!(), print!() and println!() respectively, but they accept an additional syntax inside the format string: HTML-like tags which add ANSI colors/styles at compile-time.

cstr!() only transforms the given string literal into another string literal, without formatting anything else than the colors tag.

untagged!() removes all the tags found in the given string literal.

What does it do ?

By default, the provided macros will replace the tags found in the format string by ANSI hexadecimal escape codes. E.g.:

cprintln!("HELLO <green>WORLD</green>")
cprintln!("HELLO <green>WORLD</>"); // Alternative, shorter syntax

will be replaced by:

println!("HELLO \u{1b}[31mWORLD\u{1b}[39m")

Note: it is possible to change this behaviour by activating the feature terminfo. Then it will question the terminfo database at runtime in order to know which sequence to write for each kind of styling/colorizing (see below for more detail).

Pros/cons of this crate

Pros

  • Styling is processed at compile-time, so the runtime payload is inexistant (unless the feature terminfo is activated);
  • Nested tags are well handled, e.g. "<green>...<blue>...</blue>...</green>";
  • Some optimizations are performed to avoid redundant ANSI sequences, because these optimizations can be done at compile-time without impacting the runtime;
  • Almost every tag has a short name, so colorizing can be done quickly: "my <b>blue</> word";
  • Each provided macro can be used exactly in the same way as the standard format!-like macros; e.g., positional arguments and named arguments can be used as usual;
  • Supports 16, 256 and 16M colors;
  • Fine-grained error handling (errors will be given at compile-time).

Cons

  • Not compatible with non-ANSI terminals.

Introduction

Basic example

use color_print::cprintln;
cprintln!("Hello <green>world</green>!");

Closing a tag more simply: the </> tag

Basically, tags must be closed by giving exactly the same colors/styles as their matching open tag (with a slash / at the beginning), e.g: <blue,bold>...</blue,bold>. But it can be tedious!

So, it is also possible to close the last open tag simply with </>:

cprintln!("Hello <green>world</>!");

Combining colors and styles

Multiple styles and colors can be combined into a single tag by separating them with the , comma character:

cprintln!("This a <green,bold>green and bold text</green,bold>.");
// The same, but closing with the </> tag:
cprintln!("This a <green,bold>green and bold text</>.");

Nesting tags

Any tag can be nested with any other.

Note: The closing tags must match correctly (following the basic rules of nesting for HTML tags), but it can always be simplified by using the tag </>.

Example of nested tags:

cprintln!("<green>This is green, <bold>then green and bold</bold>, then green again</green>");
cprintln!("<green>This is green, <bold>then green and bold</>, then green again</>");

// Colors can be nested as well:
cprintln!("<green>This is green, <blue>then blue</blue>, then green again</green>");
cprintln!("<green>This is green, <blue>then blue</>, then green again</>");

Unclosed tags are automatically closed at the end of the format string

Tags which have not been closed manually will be closed automatically, which means that the ANSI sequences needed to go back to the original state will be added:

// The two following lines are strictly equivalent:
cprintln!("<green><bold>Hello");
cprintln!("<green><bold>Hello</></>");

How to display the chars < and > verbatim

As for { and } in standard format strings, the chars < and > have to be doubled in order to display them verbatim:

cprintln!("This is an angle bracket character: <<, and here is another one: >>");

Optimization: no redundant ANSI codes

The expanded format string will only contain the needed ANSI codes. This is done by making a diff of the different style attributes, each time a tag is encountered, instead of mechanically adding the ANSI codes.

E.g., several nested <bold> tags will only produce one bold ANSI sequence:

cprintln!("<bold><bold> A <bold,blue> B </> C </></>")

will be replaced by:

println!("\u{1b}[1m A \u{1b}[34m B \u{1b}[39m C \u{1b}[22m")
//        ^-------^   ^--------^   ^--------^   ^--------^
//          bold         blue         color        bold
//                                    reset        reset

The feature terminfo

Instead of inserting ANSI sequences directly into the format string, it is possible to activate the feature terminfo: this will add the format sequences at runtime, by consulting the terminfo database.

This has one pro and several cons:

Pros
  • This adds a level of compatibility for some terminals.
Cons
  • This adds a little runtime payload;
  • This adds two dependencies: lazy_static and terminfo;
  • The styles <strike> and <conceal> are not handled;
  • With terminfo, many styles are not resettable individually, which implies longer format sequences for the same result;
  • For now, the provided macros can only be used in one thread.

lazy_static: https://crates.io/crates/lazy_static terminfo: https://crates.io/crates/terminfo

Naming rules of the tags:

Each tag has at least a long name, like <magenta> or <underline>.

The tags directly relative to colors (like <red>, <bg:blue>, <bg:bright-green>..., as opposed to style tags like <bold>, <italics>...) have some common naming rules:

  • Each tag has four variants:
    • <mycolor>: the normal, foreground color;
    • <bright-mycolor> or <mycolor!>: the bright, foreground color;
    • <bg:mycolor>, <MYCOLOR>: the normal, background color;
    • <bg:bright-mycolor>, <bg:mycolor!>, <BRIGHT-MYCOLOR> or <MYCOLOR!>: the bright, background color;
  • Each tag has a shortcut, with a base letter for each color; example with the x letter:
    • <x>: the normal, foreground color;
    • <x!>: the bright, foreground color;
    • <bg:x>, <X>: the normal, background color;
    • <bg:x!>, <X!>: the bright, background color;
  • Each color's shortcut letter is simply the first letter of its name (excepted for <k> which is the shortcut for <black>), e.g. <y> is the shortcut for <yellow>;
  • Each color's tag which is uppercase is a background color;
  • Each tag which has a trailing exclamation point ! is a bright color;

List of accepted tags:

The two first columns show which styles are supported, respectively with the default crate features (ANSI column), and with the feature terminfo being activated.

ANSI Terminfo Shortcuts Long names Aliases
X X <s> <strong> <em> <bold>
X X <dim>
X X <u> <underline>
X <strike>
X X <reverse> <rev>
X <conceal> <hide>
X X <i> <italics> <italic>
X X <blink>
X X <k> <black>
X X <r> <red>
X X <g> <green>
X X <y> <yellow>
X X <b> <blue>
X X <m> <magenta>
X X <c> <cyan>
X X <w> <white>
X X <k!> <bright-black> <black!>
X X <r!> <bright-red> <red!>
X X <g!> <bright-green> <green!>
X X <y!> <bright-yellow> <yellow!>
X X <b!> <bright-blue> <blue!>
X X <m!> <bright-magenta> <magenta!>
X X <c!> <bright-cyan> <cyan!>
X X <w!> <bright-white> <white!>
X X <K> <bg:black> <BLACK>
X X <R> <bg:red> <RED>
X X <G> <bg:green> <GREEN>
X X <Y> <bg:yellow> <YELLOW>
X X <B> <bg:blue> <BLUE>
X X <M> <bg:magenta> <MAGENTA>
X X <C> <bg:cyan> <CYAN>
X X <W> <bg:white> <WHITE>
X X <K!> <bg:bright-black> <BLACK!> <bg:black!> <BRIGHT-BLACK>
X X <R!> <bg:bright-red> <RED!> <bg:red!> <BRIGHT-RED>
X X <G!> <bg:bright-green> <GREEN!> <bg:green!> <BRIGHT-GREEN>
X X <Y!> <bg:bright-yellow> <YELLOW!> <bg:yellow!> <BRIGHT-YELLOW>
X X <B!> <bg:bright-blue> <BLUE!> <bg:blue!> <BRIGHT-BLUE>
X X <M!> <bg:bright-magenta> <MAGENTA!> <bg:magenta!> <BRIGHT-MAGENTA>
X X <C!> <bg:bright-cyan> <CYAN!> <bg:cyan!> <BRIGHT-CYAN>
X X <W!> <bg:bright-white> <WHITE!> <bg:white!> <BRIGHT-WHITE>
X <rgb(r,g,b)> <#RRGGBB>
X <bg:rgb(r,g,b)> <bg:#RRGGBB> <RGB(r,g,b)>
X <0>...<255> <palette(...)> <p(...)> <pal(...)>
X <P(...)> <bg:palette(...)> <PALETTE(...)> <PAL(...)> <bg:p(...)> <bg:pal(...)>

License: MIT OR Apache-2.0

Dependencies

~1.9–2.7MB
~55K SLoC