#binaries #execute #dotnet #hosting #year #host #clr


A library that allows you to host the CLR and execute dotnet binaries

7 stable releases

1.1.1 Mar 31, 2023
1.0.9 Mar 25, 2023
1.0.6 Mar 24, 2023
1.0.5 Mar 22, 2023
1.0.4 Mar 17, 2023

#175 in Date and time

Download history 20/week @ 2024-02-26 22/week @ 2024-03-18 9/week @ 2024-04-01 9/week @ 2024-04-22 8/week @ 2024-04-29 34/week @ 2024-05-06 13/week @ 2024-05-13 8/week @ 2024-05-20 1/week @ 2024-05-27 28/week @ 2024-06-03 38/week @ 2024-06-10

75 downloads per month

MIT license



ClrOxide is a rust library that allows you to host the CLR and dynamically execute dotnet binaries.

I wanted to call it Kepler for no particular reason, but there's already a package named kepler in cargo. :(

I have been working on hosting CLR with rust on and off for 2 years now, and finally something clicked two weeks ago!

This library wouldn't be possible without the following projects:

  • NimPlant and its execute assembly implementation
    • The elegance with which winim/clr allows overwriting the output buffer for Console.Write and gets the output! Striving for the same elegance is the only reason this library took two years. How can I convince Cas to dabble with rust if he can't replicate this!? My work for a rust implant for NimPlant is also how I got into this rabbit hole in the first place.
  • go-clr by ropnop
    • A very special thank you to ropnop here! This whole library is the result of 3 days of work thanks to something in go-clr that just made everything click for me!
  • dinvoke_rs by Kudaes
    • Similar to go-clr, Kurosh's dinvoke_rs project also made some rust/win32 intricacies clearer and allowed the project to move forward.
  • Various CLR-related rust libraries

Architecture Constraints


ClrOxide only works if compiled for x86_64-pc-windows-gnu or x86_64-pc-windows-msvc.

Compiling for i686-pc-windows-gnu fails due to known issues with rust panic unwinding. It might work with i686-pc-windows-msvc, but I haven't tried it myself.


Although I haven't run into this issue myself, there might be cases where you need to specifically compile your assembly as x64 instead of Any CPU.


You can find more examples in the examples/ folder.

Run an assembly and capture its output


ClrOxide will load the CLR in the current process, resolve mscorlib and redirect the output for System.Console, finally loading and running your executable and returning its output as a string.

Streaming the output is not currently supported, although I'm sure the CLR wrangling magic used for redirecting the output could be a good guide for anyone willing to implement it.

use clroxide::clr::Clr;
use std::{env, fs, process::exit};

fn main() -> Result<(), String> {
    let (path, args) = prepare_args();

    let contents = fs::read(path).expect("Unable to read file");
    let mut clr = Clr::new(contents, args)?;

    let results = clr.run()?;

    println!("[*] Results:\n\n{}", results);


fn prepare_args() -> (String, Vec<String>) {
    let mut args: Vec<String> = env::args().collect();

    if args.len() < 2 {
        println!("Please provide a path to a dotnet executable");


    let mut command_args: Vec<String> = vec![];

    if args.len() > 2 {
        command_args = args.split_off(2)

    let path = args[1].clone();

    println!("[+] Running `{}` with given args: {:?}", path, command_args);

    return (path, command_args);

Use a custom app domain


You can update the context to use a custom app domain. This can be useful if you want to avoid DefaultDomain. Check out examples/custom_app_domain.rs for more details.


  let app_domain = clr.using_runtime_host(|host| {
      let app_domain = unsafe { (*host).create_domain("CustomDomain")? };




Use a custom loader for mscoree.dll

We need to load the CreateInterface function from mscoree.dll to kickstart the CLR. You can provide a custom loader by disabling default features.

First, add default-features = false to your dependency declaration.

clroxide = { version = "1.0.6", default-features = false }

And then provide a function with the signature fn() -> Result<isize, String> that returns a pointer to the CreateInterface function when creating the Clr instance.


fn load_function() -> Result<isize, String> {
  let library = custom_load_library_a(lc!("mscoree.dll\0"));

  if library == 0 {
    return Err("Failed".into());
  let function = custom_get_process_address(library, lc!("CreateInterface\0"));
  if function == 0 {
    return Err("Failed".into());

fn main() -> Result<(), String> {
  // ...

  let mut context = Clr::new(contents, args, load_function)?;

  // ...

Patch System.Environment.Exit to not exit


You can use the building blocks provided by ClrOxide to patch System.Environment.Exit as described in Massaging your CLR: Preventing Environment.Exit in In-Process .NET Assemblies by MDSec.

You can check the reference implementation at examples/patch_exit.rs. Since this requires using VirtualProtect or NtProtectVirtualMemory, I don't intend to add this as a feature to ClrOxide.


~2M SLoC