3 unstable releases

0.2.0 Sep 15, 2023
0.1.1 Apr 21, 2021
0.1.0 Sep 1, 2020

#672 in Rust patterns

38 downloads per month

MIT/Apache

27KB
333 lines

Chassis

Compile-time dependency injector for Rust inspired by Dagger 2

Goals

  • No need to annotate your classes (support for third-party classes)
  • No required usage of std::sync::Arc
  • Zero overhead: Fast as handwritten code
    • No use of runtime type information (provided by std::any::Any references) - At the moment relying on compiler optimization until min_specialization is stabilized.
  • (Detect errors at compile time like missing dependencies or cyclic dependencies)

Use

Add chassis to your crate dependencies

[dependencies]
chassis = "^0.2.0"

Structs will be modules that can provide dependencies with functions and that itself can have dependencies. Note: Currently only associated functions are supported!

#[derive(Default)]
pub struct Module;

#[chassis::module]
impl Module {
    pub fn provide_something(dep1: Dependency1, dep2: Dependency2) -> Dependency3 {
        Dependency3::new(dep1, dep2)
    }
    // ...
}

Traits will be components. For each trait an implemented component will be created. The generated implementation will have a Impl suffix, for example ComponentImpl. Also a Component::new function is created.

#[chassis::injector(modules = [Module])]
pub trait Component {
    fn resolve_main_class(&self) -> MainClass;
}

Example

use std::rc::Rc;
// define your business logic
/// printer trait
pub trait Printer {
    fn print(&self, input: &str);
}

/// a printer implementation
pub struct StdoutPrinter;
impl Printer for StdoutPrinter {
    fn print(&self, input: &str) {
        println!("{}", input);
    }
}

/// greeter for messages
pub struct Greeter {
    message: String,
    printer: Rc<dyn Printer>,
}

impl Greeter {
    /// constructor with dependencies
    pub fn new(message: String, printer: Rc<dyn Printer>) -> Self {
        Self { message, printer }
    }
    /// your business logic
    pub fn say_hello(&self) {
        self.printer.print(&self.message);
    }
}

/// module that is parsed to create the dependency injection code
#[derive(Default)]
pub struct DemoModule;

// use strong types when in need to distinguish
pub struct Message(String);

/// Define how to create your dependencies
#[chassis::module]
impl DemoModule {
    pub fn provide_printer() -> Rc<dyn Printer> {
        Rc::new(StdoutPrinter)
    }
    pub fn provide_message() -> Message {
        Message("Hello World".to_string())
    }
    pub fn provide_greeter(
        message: Message,
        printer: Rc<dyn Printer>
    ) -> Greeter {
        Greeter::new(message.0, printer)
    }
}

/// Define which dependencies you need.
///
/// A struct `DemoComponentImpl` will be created for
/// you which implements `DemoComponent`.
#[chassis::injector(modules = [DemoModule])]
pub trait DemoComponent {
    /// request the to create injection code for our main class `Greeter`
    fn resolve_greeter(&self) -> Greeter;
}

fn main() {
    // use generated component implementation
    let injector = <dyn DemoComponent>::new()
        .expect("DI container should be consistent");
    // Resolve main dependency
    // Note: it can not fail at runtime!
    let greeter = injector.resolve_greeter();
    // enjoy!
    greeter.say_hello();
}

Singletons

Normally for every needed dependency the provider function on the module is called. This results in types created multiple times. This is maybe not intended. The solution is to use a singleton attribute. The provide method will than only called once at build time of the component (call to ComponentImpl::new). The requirement is that the type implements the Clone trait. It is recommendable to use a shared reference type like Rc or Arc for singletons so that really only one instance is created.

Example

#[chassis::module]
impl Module {
    #[chassis(singleton)]
    pub fn provide_printer() -> Rc<dyn Printer> {
        Rc::new(StdoutPrinter)
    }
}

Limitations

  • Lifetimes in the types are not supported (except 'static)
  • Generics are not handled correctly
  • Request a reference to a registered non-reference type in a module (&MyType when MyType is provided by a module)
  • Lazy requests (request a provider instead of concrete type)
  • Optional requests (only get it when it exists)
  • Multiple provider (useful for plugins)
  • Failable module functions (return Result in module)

License

Licensed under either of

at your option.

Contribution

Unless you explicitly state otherwise, any contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the work by you, as defined in the Apache-2.0 license, shall be dual licensed as above, without any additional terms or conditions.

Dependencies

~0.6–1MB
~25K SLoC