40 releases

new 0.0.44 Jul 14, 2024
0.0.41 Jun 20, 2024
0.0.36 Jan 6, 2024
0.0.35 Dec 30, 2023
0.0.3 Nov 8, 2022

#1 in #telegram-api

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MIT license

5.5MB
128K SLoC

botapi-rs

Autogenerated telegram bot api wrapper. Generates a full serde-based and async telegram bot api wrapper.

This library aims to go above and beyond just generating a http wrapper, mapping telegram types and methods more cleanly onto rust design patterns while maintaining low overhead and avoiding unnecessary clones or allocations.

Methods take advantage of generic paremters, slices, and primative types whenever possible and all api types come with an easy to use builder pattern based interface.

Features

  • Automatically kept up to date with the latest telegram api
  • Minimal fluff and boilerplate
  • Full async support with tokio
  • Support for both long polling and webhooks
  • support for large file uploads and local api server
  • Automatically generated documentation
  • Automatic handling of telegram's ratelimiting

Adding botapi to your project

You can add via cargo-edit

cargo add botapi

or edit your Cargo.toml to include

[dependencies]
botapi = { version = "0.0.40", features = [] }

There is one available feature: rhai, which enabled rhai scripting support for all telegram types (see below for more information) Normal users will not require this.

Select examples

A few examples of what you can do with this library, this is not complete documentation, it just intended as an introduction.

Create a new client

The bot api client allows low-cost Clone to allow moving into other scopes. Clients support optional "auto-wait" feature, allowing for delayed auto retry when a ratelimiting error with a retry_after parameter is handled. If you have your own handling method for 429 errors you can disable this feature.

let client = BotBuilder::new("12345:mytoken")
    .unwrap()
    .auto_wait(true) // Automatically retry after 429 errors
    .build();

let handle = client.clone();

async move {
    // async context, cloned client is moved
    let me = handle.get_me().await.unwrap();
}

Simple reply bot

Reply to all messages with Not cry!

// Setup long polling with default updates
let longpoller = LongPoller::new(&client, None);
let mut upd = longpoller.get_updates().await;
while let Some(update) = upd.next().await {
    if let UpdateExt::Message(message) = update {
        client.build_send_message(message.chat.id, "Not cry!")
        .reply_parameters(
            &ReplyParametersBuilder::new(message.message_id).build(),
        )
        .build()
        .await?;
    }
}

Anti-premium bot

React to chat member joins and ban premium users

let updates = vec![
        "update_id",
        "message",
        "edited_message",
        "channel_post",
        "edited_channel_post",
        "inline_query",
        "chosen_inline_result",
        "callback_query",
        "shipping_query",
        "pre_checkout_query",
        "poll",
        "poll_answer",
        "my_chat_member",
        "chat_member",
        "chat_join_request",
    ]
    .into_iter()
    .map(|v| v.to_owned())
    .collect();

// Setup long polling with all updates including joins
let longpoller = LongPoller::new(&client, Some(updates));
let mut upd = longpoller.get_updates().await;
while let Some(update) = upd.next().await {
    if let UpdateExt::ChatMember(member) = update {
        TG.client()
            .build_ban_chat_member(member.chat.id, member.from.id)
            .build()
            .await?;

        client.build_send_message(member.chat.id, "Begone, blue star!")
            .build()
            .await?;
    }
}

Setup webhooks

NOTE: This requires a reverse proxy that supports TLS. TLS is not supported by this library.

Webhook::new(
    &client,
    BotUrl::Host("https://bothook.tsinghua.edu.cn"),
    false,
    ([0, 0, 0, 0], 8080).into(),
    None,
)
.get_updates()
.await?
.for_each_concurrent(
    None,
    |update| async move { log::info!("update {:?}", update); },
)
.await

What is the deal with BoxWrapper<Unbox<T>>?

Warning: nerd stuff ahead. TL;DR: you can treat BoxWrapper<Box<T>> and BoxWrapper<Unbox<T>> as T for most use cases, including all botapi functions. If you need a T from a BoxWrapper just use .into() or pass a reference. its not a bug and it is required. Trust me!

Nerd explaination

Because of rust does not allow recursive types (types containing an instance of themselves) except if there is a form of indirection like an Rc<T> or Box<T>, there is an inherent incompatibility between telegram's json types and rust's own type system.

Since this library is autogenerated, we need to break some cycles with Box<T> in order to have valid types. I decided that minimizing Box'ed fields is a good idea because it makes copying and allocating telegram types more efficient, but doing this in an optimal fashion is actually equivilent to minimum feedback arc set, which is NP-complete! Oops.

The only approximation algorithms that exist for this problem that run in polynomial time result in the types being Box'ed depending on new telegram types being added in a pseudo-random fashion which results in breaking API changes every telegram release. The solution I came up with is making any json type (that is types that may result in cycles) being generic over Box<T> or Unbox<T> (a wrapper that isnt a box). This allows for a stable api. Both Box<T> and Unbox<T> implement Deref<T> and T always implements From<BoxWrapper<Box<T>> / BoxWrapper<Unbox<T>>, so the overhead of this workaround should be minimal from a user's point of view.

What is the deal with the .noskip() methods?

the T.noskip() method on an api type T constructs a NoSkipT type out of T. This type is serde-compatible with its original type (meaning you can serialize a T and deserialize it as a NoSkipT), but it doens't use the #[serde(skip_serializing_if = "Option::is_none")] atribute on any field.

The reason you would need this is if you are using a serializer like rmp_serde that serializes structs as arrays. Skipping fields when serde uses an array internally causes errors at the deserialization end. This is an edge case but its useful to have around.

Rhai bindings

Rhai is a simple embeddable scripting language designed to allow some interoperability with rust types. As rhai requires some some boilerplate to be written to allow interacting with certain rust types like enums, this library also optionally autogenerates rhai boilerplate for all telegram types. Yes, this needs to be integrated with the botapi library itself because autogeneration is required.

As this adds considerable binary size it is disabled by default, gated behind the rhai feature. Enabling rhai support does not affect performance in any way aside from binary size.

Enabling rhai feature

To enable in Cargo.toml

[dependencies]
botapi = { version = "0.0.40", features = [ "rhai" ] }

Initializing rhai engine

In order to interact with botapi types in a rhai environemnt, each of the required types must be registered with the rhai engine. This can be done either with all types or with a single type at a time.

let mut engine = Engine::new();
// Register all types
botapi::gen_types::rhai_helpers::setup_all_rhai(&mut engine);

// Register just one type (recursively registers all fields)
Message::setup_rhai(&mut engine);

Example usage of rhai bindings

Most fields in botapi types are accessible directly to rhai scripts. The main exception is enums, which are exposed using an api similar to

Example checking enum fields from a botapi::gen_types::Message type the m parameter to the anonymous function is assumed to be botapi::gen_types::Message

|m| if m.from.value.is_premium.value {
  "no premium users allowed"
}  else {
  "nice"
}

Example checking if a botapi::gen_types::Message has text

// check if value is a unit
|m| m.text.value == ()

// check if enum_type is None
|m m.text.enum_type == "None"

Building the docs

Documentation is generated automatically alongside the library itself. Docs are live at https://docs.rs/botapi, alternatively you can view the docs offline by running

cargo build
cargo doc --open

https://github.com/fmeef/dijkstra_bot: A modular telegram bot framework using this library.

https://github.com/PaulSonOfLars/telegram-bot-api-spec: This inspiraction for this project and the source of the API spec. (thanks Paul!)

Dependencies

~11–27MB
~379K SLoC