#generics #core #wrap #patterns


Amplifying Rust language capabilities: multiple generic trait implementations, type wrappers, derive macros

86 releases (48 stable)

4.0.0-beta.20 Mar 14, 2023
4.0.0-beta.17 Feb 7, 2023
4.0.0-beta.7 Dec 22, 2022
4.0.0-beta.1 Nov 22, 2022
0.1.8 Jul 4, 2020

#21 in Data structures

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Used in 97 crates (89 directly)

MIT license

3.5K SLoC

Rust Amplify Library

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Amplifying Rust language capabilities: multiple generic trait implementations, type wrappers, derive macros. Tiny library with zero non-optional dependencies. Able to work as no_std.

Minimum supported rust compiler version (MSRV): 1.60.0; rust edition 2021.

Main features


Library proposes generic implementation strategies, which allow multiple generic trait implementations.

Implementing trait for a generic type ("blanket implementation") more than once (applies both for local and foreign traits) - or implement foreign trait for a concrete type where there is some blanket implementation in the upstream. The solution is to use special pattern by @Kixunil. I use it widely and have a special helper type in src/strategy.rssrc/strategy.rs module.

With that helper type you can write the following code, which will provide you with efficiently multiple blanket implementations of some trait SampleTrait:

pub trait SampleTrait {
    fn sample_trait_method(&self);

// Define strategies, one per specific implementation that you need,
// either blanket or concrete
pub struct StrategyA;
pub struct StrategyB;
pub struct StrategyC;

// Define a single marker type
pub trait Strategy {
    type Strategy;

// Do a single blanket implementation using Holder and Strategy marker trait
impl<T> SampleTrait for T
    T: Strategy + Clone,
    amplify::Holder<T, <T as Strategy>::Strategy>: SampleTrait,
    // Do this for each of sample trait methods:
    fn sample_trait_method(&self) {

// Do this type of implementation for each of the strategies
impl<T> SampleTrait for amplify::Holder<T, StrategyA>
    T: Strategy,
    fn sample_trait_method(&self) {
        /* ... write your implementation-specific code here */

# pub struct ConcreteTypeA;
// Finally, apply specific implementation strategy to a concrete type
// (or do it in a blanket generic way) as a marker:
impl Strategy for ConcreteTypeA {
    type Strategy = StrategyA;

Derive macros

  • Display
  • From
  • Error
  • Getters
  • AsAny
  • Wrapper

A sample of what can be done with the macros:

#[derive(From, Error, Display, Debug)]
pub enum Error {
    // You can specify multiple conversions with separate attributes
    /// Generic I/O error

    // This produces error description referencing debug representation
    // of the internal error type
    /// Formatting error: {_0:}

    /// Some complex error, here are details: {details}
    WithFields { details: ::std::str::Utf8Error },

    MultipleFields {
        // ...and you can also covert error type
        // rest of parameters must implement `Default`
        io: IoError,

        details: String,

More information is given in amplify_derive crate README.


  • none! as an alias for Default::default() on collection types and types for which semantics makes it sensible to emphasize that the operation initializes empty structure.
  • s! for fast &str -> String conversions
  • Collection-generating macros:
    • map! & bmap! for a rappid HashMap and BTreeMap creation
    • set! & bset! for a rappid HashSet and BTreeSet creation
    • list! for LinkedList

Wapper type

Wrapper trait helps in creating wrapped rust newtypes, Wrapped types are used for allowing implemeting foreign traits to foreign types: https://doc.rust-lang.org/stable/rust-by-example/generics/new_types.html

Trait defines convenient methods for accessing inner data, construct and deconstruct newtype. It also serves as a marker trait for newtypes.

The trait works well with #[derive(Wrapper)] from amplify_derive crate


cargo build --all
cargo test

As a reminder, minimum supported rust compiler version (MSRV) is 1.36.0, so it can be build with either nightly, dev, stable or 1.36+ version of the rust compiler. Use rustup for getting the proper version, or add +toolchain parameter to both cargo build and cargo test commands.


RUSTFLAGS="--cfg bench" cargo bench


~21K SLoC